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Why Definitions are Important • Why do people argue about the meaning of terrorism? • Meaning changes • It is a concept • Means different things at different times
Why Definitions are Important • Pejorative Connotation of Terrorism • Political and social degradation when labeled a terrorist • Routine crimes assume greater importance when described as terrorism • Political movement can be hampered when followers believed to be terrorists
Why Definitions are Important • Definitions of Terrorism from Various Interest Groups • Law Enforcement • Governments • Advocating for redistribution of wealth • Pro-life/Pro-choice
Definitions of Terrorism • Jenkins: Threat or use of force for political change • Laqueur: Use of force to achieve political objective; targets innocent people • Crenshaw: Cannot be defined without analysis of act, target, and possibility of success
Definitions of Terrorism • Herman: Defined in terms of state repression • Schmid: Meaning is derived from targets and victims of terrorists • Barnett: Terrorists do not have vested interest in maintaining political/economic structures because they do not benefit from them
The Meaning of the War on Terrorism • Arguments accepting the war with terrorism: • Friedman • Blank • Cohen • Hill
The Meaning of the War on Terrorism • Argument that does not accept the war on terrorism: • Howard—terrorism is an emergency situation best handled by intelligence and law enforcement services
The Tactics of Terrorism • Jenkins’ six tactics of terrorism: • Bombing (most common) • Hijacking • Arson • Assault • Kidnapping • Hostage Taking • Weapons of mass destruction?
Tactics of Terrorism • Four Force Multipliers: • Technology • Transnational support networks • Media coverage • Religious fanaticism
How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior • Justification for violence • Consumed with the cause • Reasons potential terrorists join groups: • Sympathy for the cause • Social misfits
How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior • Post’s Motivational Theories • No single terrorist personality • Social outcasts who fall in with like-minded individuals • “Us against them” mentality • Antisocial behavior rewarded and reinforced within this group • Rejection of external authority; acceptance of internal authority
How Terrorists Groups Justify Behavior • Stern’s View on Group Cohesion: • “Us against them” mentality against common enemy • Group must have a story/mythology to inspire and guide members • Group needs own language or symbolic words to demonize enemy
How Terrorist Groups Justify Behavior • Berlet and Lyons: • Groups look for conspiracies and then scapegoat a group for the conspiracy • Demonize scapegoats as primary cause of injustice • Leaders inspire members to action and search to demonize more enemies
Warrior Dreams • Warrior Culture • Warriors = social outcasts whose lives center on violence; lone wolf • Identity crisis of extreme conservatives following Vietnam War • Culture values guns and violent confrontations • Paramilitary culture/lifestyle: war games, paramilitary religion, war films/books, extremists
Warrior Dreams • Targets of the warrior: • Enemy lacks all standards of human decency whose goal is to destroy American society and culture • Communist • Dope dealer • Mafioso • Academic • Liberal
Warrior Dreams • Lone warrior • SWAT, commando units reflect organized military values, so warrior rejects them • At war with status quo • Justifies actions of militias, New Order, neo-Nazis • Provides formula for justifying terrorism
Terrorist Profiles: Three Views • Hacker one of first criminal profilers • Hacker’s three types of terrorists: • Criminals • Join terrorist groups for payoff or vengeance • Crazies • Join terrorist groups for thrills of lifestyle • Crusaders • People who believe deeply in a cause
Terrorist Profiles: Three Views • Laqueur’s Views of Terrorist Profiling: • No terrorist profile possible due to different types of terrorism • Terrorism fluctuates over time • Some group characteristics can be determined through type of terrorist movement • Impossible to profile terrorist personality because terrorism is a political activity rather than a subject of criminology
Terrorist Profiles: Three Views • Ross’ alternative view: Social/psychological processes rather than profiles • Joining the group • Forming the activity • Remaining in the campaign • Leading the organization • Engaging in acts of terrorism