Terrorism defined… • The calculated use of violence to instill fear, intended to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of a goal.
Goals of Terrorism • Political Terrorism • Religious Terrorism • Ideological Terrorism
Political Terrorism • Focuses on governments. Usually the terrorists disagree with a government.
Examples • World Trade Center & Pentagon bombings - 2001 • USS Cole bombing in Yemen - 2000 • U.S. Embassy attacks in Africa - 1998 • World Trade Center Bombing - 1993 • Bombing of U.S. Army Barracks in Beiruit, Lebanon - 1983
Religious Terrorism • Groups feel that their religion is the one true religion and others are false. Focuses on attacking other religious groups or non-religious groups who they feel try to undermine theirs.
Examples • Middle East: Jews vs. Palestinians (Muslims) • Hostage Crisis at Munich Olympics - 1972 • Ireland: Catholics vs. Protestants
Ideological Terrorism • Focuses on Beliefs, theories, and aims of a particular group. People commit terrorist acts because of their belief in a certain cause.
Examples • Oklahoma City Federal Building bombing - 1995 • Killing of Abortion Doctors • Environmental Terrorism • Militia Groups - unofficial groups of armed civilians
Most common methods used by Terrorists • Bombings • Armed Attacks • Assassinations • Kidnappings
Rational Motivation Actions --> Desired result Psychological Motivation Belief that their view is right Need to belong Justification of their own existence To be a “martyr” Cultural Motivation Culture feels threat to existence Deeply rooted values in place Why do they commit acts of terror?
Major Terrorist Groups • Al-Qaeda: loosely knit group around world • Hamas: Palestinian group opposed to Israel • Hezbollah: Palestinian group opposed to Israel • PLO: Palestine Liberation Organization **Each of these groups are fighting a holy war or “jihad” • IRA: Irish Republican Army: Irish Catholic group whose aim is to get England out of Northern Ireland
Terrorism in the future • Higher levels of violence • Increased technological capabilities • More use of chemical & biological warfare • Chemical - toxins (mustard gas, nerve gas, etc) • Biological - anthrax, plague, small pox, ebola • Ecological Terrorism • I.e. blowing up dams, attacks on oil companies