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Roman Jakobson . Basic Questions. What are the basic functions of language in communication?  What is the poetic function? Where do we see poetic functions in daily language?

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basic questions
Basic Questions
  • What are the basic functions of language in communication?  What is the poetic function? Where do we see poetic functions in daily language?
  • Is there a common semantic operation in sentence-making and the making of poems, films, and the other cultural languages?
  • How do Jacobson’s views of poetic language compliment the structuralist narratology of Todorov?
examples of poetic function
Examples of ‘poetic’ function
  • Jocobson “The poetic function projects the principle of equivalence from the asix of selection into the axis of combination.”
  • Store names: 沒事找茶;茶言觀色;茶號台
  • Commercial slogan: 我愛大自然
  • 鬧鐘 鬧人不鬧鬼
  • 醫生 醫活不醫死
  • 學校 學好不學壞
  •  equivalence --homonyms, puns, parallel structures, and rhymes.
  •  creating (metaphoric) connotations or ambiguities;
language literature as an enclosed system with two axes
Language/Literature as an enclosed system with two Axes

Selection (the paradigmatic pole)

Combination(the syntagmatic pole)

(sentence; functions;

mytonymy )

Mythemes,actants, metaphors, etc.

roman jakobson s studies of aphasia
Roman Jakobson’s studies of aphasia
  • Similarity disorder – inability to deal with “associative” relationships in language.
  • Contiguity disorder –inability to organize words into higher units (e.g. sentence).
  •  Arts? The example of Gleb Ivannovic
from aphasia to poetry
From Aphasia to poetry
  • metaphor – substitution of one with something similar –poetry –Romanticism/Symbolism
  • How about narrative poems? e.g. 木蘭辭、Ode on Nightingale, “I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud”
  • metonymy – replacement of one with something close by

-- novel –Realism

Is this distinction true to all the texts in these movements?

e g 1 to autumn
e.g. (1) “To Autumn”

Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,

Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;

Conspiring with him how to load and bless

With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;

To bendwith applesthe moss'd cottage-trees,

And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;

To swell the gourd, and plumpthe hazel shells

With a sweet kernel; to set buddingmore,

And still more, later flowersfor the bees,

Until they think warm days will never cease,

For Summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells.

sailing to byzantium w b yeats green nature time brown art
Sailing to ByzantiumW.B. Yeats (green- nature/time, brown -art)

That is no country for old men. The young

In one another's arms, birds in the trees -

Those dying generations - at their song,

The salmon-falls, the mackerel-crowded seas,

Fish, flesh, or fowl, commend all summer long

Whatever is begotten, born, and dies.

Caught in that sensual music all neglect

Monuments of unageing intellect.

sailing to byzantium 2
Sailing to Byzantium (2)

An aged man is but a paltry thing,

A tattered coat upon a stick, unless

Soul clap its hands and sing, and louder sing

For every tatter in its mortal dress,

Nor is there singing school but studying

Monuments of its own magnificence;

And therefore I have sailed the seas and come

To the holy city of Byzantium.

sailing to byzantium 3
Sailing to Byzantium (3)

O sages standing in God's holy fire

As in the gold mosaic of a wall,

Come from the holy fire, perne in a gyre,

And be the singing-masters of my soul.

Consume my heart away; sick with desire

And fastened to a dying animal

It knows not what it is; and gather me

Into the artifice of eternity.

sailing to byzantium 4
Sailing to Byzantium (4)

Once out of nature I shall never take

My bodily form from any natural thing,

But such a form as Grecian goldsmiths make

Of hammered gold and gold enamelling

To keep a drowsy Emperor awake;

Or set upon a golden bough to sing

To lords and ladies of Byzantium

Of what is past, or passing, or to come.

e g 2 picasso vs margritte
e.g. (2) Picasso vs. Margritte

Nature Morte

by Pablo Picasso

e g 2 picasso vs margritte1
e.g. (2) Picasso vs. Margritte

The Treachery of Images, by Rene Magritte, 1928/29