The Pax Romana Roman Law Roman Institutions Roman Tolerance Roman Attitudes Roman Military - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Pax Romana Roman Law Roman Institutions Roman Tolerance Roman Attitudes Roman Military

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  1. The Pax Romana Roman Law Roman Institutions Roman Tolerance Roman Attitudes Roman Military Roman Peace and Prosperity

  2. Rome & the Roman Empire at its Peak • Population: 100,000,000+ • 31 different ethnic groups • 10,000 cities and towns • 180,000 miles of paved roads • Rome itself had: • 11 Public Baths • 22 Aqueducts • Coliseum & Circus Maximus

  3. I. The Founding of Rome 900 - 509BC II. The Roman Republic and the Conflict of the Orders III. Wars 509 BC. - 287 BC including the Mountain People, the Senones, the Samnites, and the Greeks of southern Italy - The Unification of Italy IV. Expansion outside of Italy - The Punic Wars 264-241BC and 215-201BC V. Dominion in the Mediterranean - Illyria, Macedonia, Greece, Asia(Turkey), Carthage, and Spain VI. The Gracchi Brothers, Marius, and Sulla (Liberals vs Conservatives) VII. Julius Caesar and the first triumvirate - The fall of the Republic

  4. Three Key Roman Eras: • Settlement & Founding 1000 BC – 600 BC • The Monarchial Period • 600 to 509 BC • The Republic • 509 to 44 BC and J. Caesar’s Death • The Empire • 44 to 476 AD

  5. Rome: Founding to 509 BC. Early Settlement And The Monarchial Period

  6. Nordic Waves of Settlement • Palafittes 2000 BC • Lake/Platform Homes • Cremation, Stone Tools • Terramare 1500 BC • Bronze • Villanovan 1000 BC • Iron Age Settlements Oppidum – main settlements Vicus/Vici – Chief & Assembly Pagus/Pagi – small district There’s No Place Like Rome

  7. Etruscan Invaders • Highly Civilized • Urban • Traders • Manufactures • Partiers • Gladiatorial Contests • Empire Builders • Women’s Rights Activists

  8. Latium is Settled • 50 Cities • Villanovan Development • Cooperative • Warlike • Rome • Latin League Created

  9. Romulus Founds Rome • Mars & Rhea Silvia • Numitor & Amulius • Brothers • Romulus • Remus • Palatine Hill • Romulus • April 21, 753 BC

  10. The Monarchial Period 600 – 509BC

  11. The King • Chief Priest • Augurs & Pontifex • Auspicium (omen) • Chief Legislator • Curiate & Senate • Chief Executive Imperium • Quaestor • Picked by the Etruscans

  12. Religion Before the Greek Influence Conducted by the King – 3 Times Daily Worship was at the Sacred Hearth – Sustained by the Vestal Virgins Worship focused on the NUMIA formless sexless multifunctional beings

  13. Institutions in the Monarchial Period • Extended Family • Pater Familias • Clan Group • 30 Curias • 3 Tribes • 2 Social Classes • Patricians • Plebeians

  14. Revolution509BC Romans v Etruscans The Republic Created

  15. Troubles on the Borders • Civil War in Latium • Mountain People: • Hernici • Aequi • Volsci • Sabines • Etruscans

  16. Civil War in Latium • 50 Cities fight each other for dominance • Questions of Survival • Saved by a Treaty and Compromise! Cassian Treaty 493 BC.

  17. Aequi and Volsci 38 years Etruscans At Fidenae 509 BC to 425 BC Neutrality, Peace, and Protection given by Individual Treaty Negotiation! Hernici Sabines War & Peace

  18. Freedonium Etruscans • Graftonia Italy After 509 BC • Cedarburgium

  19. Destruction of the Etruscans • Fidenae Falls! • Eturia is open to conquest!! • Rome takes Veii!!! • Rome meets the Senones – Gauls from the North!!!!!

  20. Senones 387 BC.

  21. Defeated and Occupied by the Senones 387 BC.

  22. Government Military Social Architecture After: 509 BC 387 BC Reforming-Rebuilding-Creating

  23. Government in the Republic Legislative Branch Executive Branch Social Classes

  24. The Course of Honors: All offices are one year terms with 10 years required between offices! Consul Dictator Maius Imperium Praetor Aedile Tribune of Plebeians Patrician Path Queastor Plebeian Path Military service and Lieutenants Rank

  25. Pent cameral Legislatures • Curia Assembly • Centuriate Assembly • Comitia de Tributa • Council of Plebeians • Senate

  26. Conflict of the Orders Plebs vs Pats

  27. Code of the 12 Tables • Written Consistent Law is DEMANDED! • The Hortensian Law • Plebeian Protest!

  28. Plebeian Power • Reforms in Social Class • Reforms in Government • Reforms in land ownership • Reforms in Credit Plebs v. Pats Teachers v. School Board

  29. Military Reforms • A New Wall • 387 BC to 410 AD • The Legion Created • Chain of Command • Consul to Centurion

  30. Fighting for Respect • HAVES Rebel! • Latin League Loyalty???? • Yes! • Camillus Leads • 387 to 358 BC • Rome Wins • Individual Treaties Written • Roman Control of the area around Latium

  31. Troubles in Campania

  32. Campania • Area directly south of Latium • Peoples of Campania • Lucanians to the far south and Oscans to the north on the border of southern Latium • Samnite????? • Samnites don’t live in Campania! Samnites v Oscan

  33. The Samnite Wars & The Unification of Central Italy: • First Samnite War 343-341 BC • Great Latin War 341-338 BC • Second Samnite War 327-304 BC • Third Samnite War 298-290 BC • Gellius Egnatius & Sentinum 296 BC • Via Appia Built • Individual Treaty Negotiations

  34. Via Appia

  35. Space Shuttle Determined by the Whom? Roadways, Railway? The Romans of Course!

  36. The first all weather road. Roman Legions eventually built 180,000 miles of paved all weather roads. http://www.history.com/media.do?id=rome_appian_way_broadband&action=clip

  37. http://www.italyguides.it/movie/roma/appia/via_appia.mov

  38. The Samnite Wars & The Unification of Central Italy: • First Samnite War 343-341 BC • Great Latin War 341-338 BC • Second Samnite War 327-304 BC • Third Samnite War 298-290 BC • Gellius Egnatius & Sentinum 296 BC • Via Appia Built • Individual Treaty Negotiations

  39. Gauls in the North Greeks in the South

  40. It’s all Greek to me! • Roman ally the Lucanians, attack Thurii • Thurii claims Roman protection under Noninterference Treaty from 2nd Samnite War

  41. Thurii v Tarentum • Rome calls off its ally Lucania • Tarentum and the S. Greeks view this as a violation of the Noninterference Treaty • War in the South!

  42. Gauls of Northern Italy Rome’s at war in the South Gellius Egnatius was right Gaul’s attack!

  43. Vadimo 283 BC Po River City It’s hard to swim with armor!

  44. Pyrrhus of Epirus: • Uncle of Alexander the Great • Brings 25,000 mercenaries and 20 tanks to Italy • Creates a southern coalition against Rome • Heraclea in 280 BC • Pyrrhic Victory