ME 350 – Lecture 9 – Ch 8. Natural Rubber. Nylon (replaces silk). HDPE (replaces cast iron, Cu). PVC. Kevlar (replaces metal alloys). Polymers. Polymers are described as plastics and rubbers Three categories: Thermoplastic polymers Thermosetting polymers Elastomers
Nylon (replaces silk)
(replaces cast iron, Cu)
Kevlar (replaces metal alloys)
Solid materials at room temperature but viscous liquids when heated
Polymers that exhibit extreme elastic extensibility
MW of one monomer?
C (12) = 24
H (1) = 3
Cl (36) = 36
MW = 63
monomer MW = 63
molecule MW = 63 x 1500 = 94,500
Thermosets possess a high degree of cross‑linking, while elastomers possess a low degree of cross‑linking
Crystallized regions in a polymer: (a) long molecules forming crystals randomly mixed in with the amorphous material; and (b) folded chain lamella, the typical form of a crystallized region.
Fillers – to strengthen polymer or reduce cost
Plasticizers – to soften polymer and improve flow
Colorants – pigments or dyes
Lubricants – to reduce friction and improve flow
Flame retardents – to reduce flammability of polymer
Cross‑linking agents – for thermosets and elastomers
Ultraviolet light absorbers – to reduce degradation from sunlight
Antioxidants – to reduce oxidation damage
Model of long elastomer molecules, with low degree of cross‑linking: (a) unstretched, and (b) under tensile stress.
Increase in stiffness as a function of strain for three grades of rubber: natural rubber, vulcanized rubber, and hard rubber.