Lecture 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

lecture 2 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Lecture 2 PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 34
Lecture 2
138 Views
Download Presentation
mika
Download Presentation

Lecture 2

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Lecture 2 Chemical Reaction Engineering (CRE) is the field that studies the rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions and the design of the reactors in which they take place.

  2. Lecture 2 – Tuesday 1/15/2013 • Review of Lecture 1 • Definition of Conversion, X • Develop the Design Equations in terms of X • Size CSTRs and PFRs given –rA= f(X) • Conversion for Reactors in Series • Review the Fall of the Tower of CRE

  3. Review Lecture 1 ReactorMole Balances Summary NA FA FA The GMBE applied to the four major reactortypes (and the general reaction AB) t W V Batch CSTR PFR PBR

  4. Review Lecture 1 CSTR – Example Problem Given the following information, Find V Liquidphase

  5. Review Lecture 1 CSTR – Example Problem (1) Mole Balance: (2) Rate Law: (3) Stoichiometry:

  6. Review Lecture 1 CSTR – Example Problem (4) Combine: (5) Evaluate:

  7. Define conversion, X Consider the generic reaction: Chose limiting reactant A as basis of calculation: Define conversion, X

  8. Batch

  9. Batch Integrating, The necessary t to achieve conversion X.

  10. CSTR Consider the generic reaction: Chose limiting reactant A as basis of calculation: Define conversion, X

  11. CSTR Well Mixed Steady State

  12. CSTR CSTR volumenecessary to achieveconversion X.

  13. PFR Steady State

  14. PFR Integrating, PFR volume necessary to achieve conversion X.

  15. ReactorMole Balances Summary in terms of conversion, X X Batch t CSTR X W PFR PBR

  16. Levenspiel Plots ReactorSizing Given –rA as a function of conversion, -rA= f(X), one can size any type of reactor. Wedo this by constructing a Levenspielplot. Here we ploteither (FA0/-rA) or (1/-rA) as a function of X. For (FA0/-rA) vs. X, the volume of a CSTR and the volume of a PFR can be represented as the shaded areas in the Levenspiel Plots shown as:

  17. Levenspiel Plots

  18. Area = Volume of CSTR F 0 A - r A X 1 CSTR

  19. PFR

  20. LevenspielPlots

  21. Numerical Evaluations of Integrals • The integral to calculate the PFR volume can be evaluated using method as Simpson’s One-Third Rule: (See Appendix A.4) Other numerical methods are: • Trapezoidal Rule (uses two data points) • Simpson’s Three-Eight’s Rule (uses four data points) • Five-Point Quadrature Formula

  22. Reactors in Series Given: rA as a function of conversion, one can also design any sequence of reactors in series by defining X: Only valid ifthere are no sidestreams. Molar Flow rate of species A at point i:

  23. Reactors in Series

  24. Reactors in Series Reactor 1: V1

  25. Reactors in Series Reactor 2: V2

  26. Reactors in Series Reactor 3: V3

  27. Reactors in Series

  28. Reactors in Series Space time τ is the time necessary to process 1 reactor volume of fluid at entrance conditions.

  29. KEEPING UP • The tower of CRE, is it stable?

  30. Reaction Engineering Mole Balance Rate Laws Stoichiometry These topics build upon one another.

  31. Heat Effects Isothermal Design Stoichiometry Rate Laws Mole Balance CRE Algorithm

  32. Rate Laws Mole Balance Be careful not to cut corners on any of the CRE building blocks while learning this material!

  33. Isothermal Design Heat Effects Rate Laws Stoichiometry Mole Balance Otherwise, your Algorithm becomes unstable.

  34. End of Lecture 2