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Chapter 3: Matter, Energy, and Life. Define matter, atoms, molecules Define energy and energy flow Define basic fundamentals of Ecology. I. From Atoms to Cells. A. General Information 1. Ecology – The study of the relationships between organisms and their environment

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chapter 3 matter energy and life

Chapter 3: Matter, Energy, and Life

Define matter, atoms, molecules

Define energy and energy flow

Define basic fundamentals of Ecology

i from atoms to cells
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • A. General Information
    • 1. Ecology – The study of the relationships between organisms and their environment
      • Studies the life histories, distributions, and behaviors of individual species
      • Studies the structure and function of naturals systems at the level of populations, communities, ecosystems, and landscapes
i from atoms to cells1
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • A. General information
    • 2. Holistic approach to ecology
      • Uses systems to study interactions
      • Observe the interconnected nature of systems and organisms within
  • B. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds
    • 1. Matter – everything that has mass and takes up space
      • It exists in 3 distinct states
        • Solid, liquid, and gas
i from atoms to cells2
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • B. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds
        • Atoms have unique chemical forms called Elements
          • Cannot be broken down into simpler forms by ordinary chemical reactions
          • 4 elements make up 96% of the mass of all organisms
          • The elements are O, C, H, N
    • 2. Atoms - the smallest particles that exhibit the characteristics of the element
      • Composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons
i from atoms to cells3
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • Atomic number is the number of protons and is used to form the periodic table
  • The number of neutrons may differ creating isotopes
  • Atoms can join together to form molecules
    • Molecules are any two atoms joined together
    • Compounds are molecules created with different types of atoms
  • Chemical bonds hold atoms together
    • 2 major types of bonds are ionic and covalent
i from atoms to cells4
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • 3. Ions
    • Make up acids and bases
    • Unequal numbers of electrons and protons
      • Positive ions form acids (give up electrons readily, i.e. electron donors)
      • Negative ions form bases (can bond easily with hydrogen ions, i.e. electron acceptors)
    • The number of free hydrogen (hydronium) ions and hydroxide ions in solution is used to create the pH scale
i from atoms to cells5
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • 4. Organic Compounds
    • Some elements are used, by organisms, in abundance
    • Some elements are used, by organisms, in trace amounts
    • Any compound containing carbon is called an organic compound
    • 4 major categories of organic compounds
      • Carbohydrates
        • Sugars, instant energy
i from atoms to cells6
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • Lipids
    • Fats and oils
    • Also called hydrocarbons
    • Long chains of carbon with 2 Hydrogen atoms attached
  • Proteins
    • Made up of amino acids
    • Composed of amine group and carboxyl group
i from atoms to cells7
I. From Atoms to Cells
        • Nucleic acids
          • Made up of deoxyribose, phosphate group and a nitrogen base
          • DNA
  • 5. Cells
    • Fundamental units of life
    • Some are single-celled
      • Bacteria, algae, protozoa
    • Some are multi-celled
      • Plants, animals, fungi
i from atoms to cells8
I. From Atoms to Cells
  • 5. Cells (cont.)
    • Chemical reactions occur because of enzymes
      • Otherwise cells would burn up due to the combustion of metabolism
    • Energy transfer is called metabolism in cells
      • For example, sugar to ATP
ii energy and matter
II. Energy and Matter
  • 1. General Information
    • Essential constituents of all living organisms
    • Energy provides the force to hold structures, tear apart structures, and move materials
  • 2. Energy Types and Quantities
    • Energy is defined as the “ability to do work”
      • Kinetic Energy – is the energy of movement
ii energy and matter1
II. Energy and Matter
    • Potential Energy – is stored energy, the energy of position
    • Chemical Energy – is the energy stored in the food you eat, energy of chemical bonds
  • Measured as Joules (physics), BTU’s (propane), and Calories (food)
  • Power is the rate of doing work
  • Heat describes the total energy not used in the movement of an object; lost energy
ii energy and matter2
II. Energy and Matter
    • Temperature is the speed of motion of an atom
  • 3. Conservation of Matter
    • Matter, like energy, is neither created nor destroyed
    • Called the Conservation of Matter
      • Matter is transformed and combined
ii energy and matter3
II. Energy and Matter
  • 4. Thermodynamics and Energy Transfers
    • Organisms use gases, water and nutrients
      • Metabolism – waste products are returned to the environment in a different form (by-products)
    • Energy is not recycled (in the biosphere)
      • Must provide energy from an external source
ii energy and matter4
II. Energy and Matter
  • Energy has a one-way path that eventually ends up in a low-temperature sink
  • First Law of Thermodynamics
    • Energy is conserved
    • Cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred from one form to another form
  • Second law of Thermodynamics
    • As energy is transferred or transformed, there is less energy to do work
      • Energy is ‘lost’ to the environment
ii energy and matter5
II. Energy and Matter
  • Recognizes a tendency of all natural systems to go from a state of order toward a state of increasing disorder
    • Entropy – “Entropy Rules!”
    • Also called the ‘Chaos Theory’
      • For example: Life to Death
iii energy for life
III. Energy for Life
  • 1. Solar Energy: Warmth and Light
    • Organisms survive at different temperature ranges
      • Low temps affect metabolism negatively, not enough energy produced to survive
      • High temps break down molecules rendering them non-functional
    • Photosynthesis converts sunlight into organic compounds that can be used as energy
iii energy for life1
III. Energy for Life
  • 1. Solar Energy: Warmth and Light
    • Cellular respiration converts the organic compounds of photosynthesis into ATP
iv from species to ecosystems
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • 1. Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
    • Species are all of the organisms that are genetically similar enough to reproduce viable offspring
    • Populations consist of all of the members of a species living in a given area at a given time
      • Extinctions can be large scale (complete) and small scale (local)
iv from species to ecosystems1
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • 1. Populations, Communities and Ecosystems
    • A community is all of the populations of organisms living and interacting in a particular area
    • An ecosystem is the biological community and its physical environment
    • Boundaries between communities and ecosystems may be difficult, but must occur
    • Ecosystems are separated based on communities, climate, and productivity of the communities
iv from species to ecosystems2
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • 2. Food Chains, Webs, and Trophic Levels
      • Primary Productivity is the amount of biomass produced in a given area
        • Higher productivity ecosystems – TRF, TSF, and Wetlands
        • Lower productivity ecosystems – Deserts, Tundra
      • Net Primary Productivity includes decomposition and can change the scale of productivity
        • TRF is no longer a high productivity ecosystem
iv from species to ecosystems3
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • 2. Food Chains, Webs, and Trophic Levels
    • Consumption of plants is considered Secondary productivity
    • Food Chains are a linking of feeding series between organisms
      • For example, Grass  Grasshopper  Frog
      • Or Grass  Cow  Man (steak, yeah baby!)
      • In communities, consumers have primary food sources
        • Will eat that food source first
        • Some consumers have secondary food sources
          • Don’t compete as well for this food source
iv from species to ecosystems4
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • 2. Food Chains, Webs, and Trophic Levels
      • Some consumers are opportunistic
        • Stumble on food (not the norm)
        • Will eat primary food source, but will anything it happens across
        • Typically are called omnivore
        • Examples are bears, raccoons
    • A Trophic Level is an organisms ‘feeding’ status
      • Producers are the first trophic level (autotroph)
iv from species to ecosystems5
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • Primary consumers are the second trophic level (herbivore)
  • Secondary consumers are the third trophic level (carnivore)
  • There is energy ‘loss’ at each trophic level
    • Typically the consumer receives 1/10th of the energy… 9/10th is lost
  • Most food chains are 3 trophic levels, some are 4, very few are 5
    • Due to the energy loss during each consumption
iv from species to ecosystems6
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • Tertiary consumers are either top carnivores or scavengers (third, fourth, or fifth trophic level)
  • Detritovores consume leaf litter, debris, and dung (third, fourth, or fifth trophic level)
  • Decomposers finish the break-down process of materials (third, fourth, or fifth trophic level)
    • Turns the material into very elemental forms
iv from species to ecosystems7
IV. From Species to Ecosystems
  • 3. Ecological Pyramids
    • Number of organisms (by percent) in each trophic level
    • Can be used to describe the available energy for habitats, communities, or ecosystems
v material cycles and life processes
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 1. The Carbon Cycle
    • Has 2 purposes for organisms
      • Structural component of organic molecules
      • Energy storage in the chemical bonds
    • Starts with CO2 intake by producers
    • Carbon is incorporated into sugar
    • Sugar is burned in all organisms through Cellular Respiration, releasing CO2 into the ecosystem
v material cycles and life processes1
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 1. The Carbon Cycle (cont.)
    • Some carbon is lost to ‘carbon sinks’
      • Ex. Coal, Oil, and Trees
      • Carbon is not released until combustion
      • Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) is incorporated into shells of organisms
        • Very difficult to break down, especially in anoxic conditions at the bottom of lakes and oceans
v material cycles and life processes2
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 2. The Nitrogen Cycle
    • Organisms can not exist without organic compounds comprised of Nitrogen
      • Ex. Proteins, nucleic acids, amino acids, etc.
    • Inorganic forms of Nitrogen are utilized by plants to form organic compounds
    • Nitrogen is the most abundant element in the atmosphere, but it is unusable as N2
v material cycles and life processes3
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 2. The Nitrogen Cycle (cont.)
    • The nitrogen cycle provides usable N for plants
      • Nitrogen-fixing bacteria turn the N2 into usable N for plants (NH3 : ammonia)
      • Nitrite forming bacteria change NH3 into NO2 (nitrite)
      • Nitrate forming bacteria converts NO2 into NO3 (nitrate)
      • NO3 is used by the plants
v material cycles and life processes4
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 2. The Nitrogen Cycle (cont.)
      • Plants convert NO3 into NH4 (ammonium)
      • NH4 is used to create amino acids
      • Nitrogen re-enters the system when organisms die through decomposition
      • Nitrogen, also, re-enters the system through metabolic waste (uric acid)
        • Urination dumps nitrogen (called pulses) into streams, rivers, and soil
        • Bacteria consume and turn the waste into NH3
v material cycles and life processes5
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 3. The Phosphorus Cycle
    • Phosphorus is used by organisms for energy transfer processes
    • Major component of fertilizers
    • Begins with phosphorus leaching from rocks into groundwater
    • Inorganic phosphorus is absorbed by producers
      • Turned into organic compounds
v material cycles and life processes6
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 3. The Phosphorus Cycle
    • Reintroduced to the environment through decomposition of organic material
v material cycles and life processes7
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 4. The Sulfur (Sulphur) Cycle
    • Used in proteins
    • Determine acidity of rainfall, surface water, and soil
    • Most is in the form of rocks and minerals
      • Iron disulfide (FeS2), calcium sulfate (CaSO4)
    • Inorganic sulfur is released into the atmosphere as SO2 and SO4 (Sulfate)
v material cycles and life processes8
V. Material Cycles and Life Processes
  • 4. The Sulfur (Sulphur) Cycle (cont.)
    • Sulfur has many oxidative states
      • Ex. Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S), Sulfur Dioxide (SO2), Sulfate ion (SO4-), and S (elemental)
    • Human activities release sulfur
      • Ex. Burning of fossil fuels
    • Phytoplankton release large quantities of sulfur to the atmosphere (especially during warming trends)
      • DMS  SO2  SO4 (DMS is Dimethylsulfide)
      • Increases the earth’s albedo
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