Change management Awareness and Communication Subhash Bhatnagar As part of the Capacity Building Workshop under the Joint Economic Research Program (JERP)
This session will focus on the critical task of change management within the government during implementation of e-government applications. The inherent complexity in implementation will be discussed. The session will discuss why civil servants resist the implementation of e-government projects. The reasons for resistance may vary at different levels of civil service. Some of the approaches that have been used successfully in managing change would be described using illustrations from e-government implementation from different countries. The need for creating awareness in the public would be highlighted.
eGovernment Implementation is Complex • Inherent difficulties • Long implementation • Underestimation of effort • Benefits accrue in the end whereas effort required upfront • Large number of stake holders • Who are the drivers: consultants, departments, ICT authority, Partner • Degree of support from Top management for investment and involvement in implementation • Clarity of goals and policies on process reform • Design issues • Processes consistent and transparent versus flexibility • Integrating with legacy systems • Technical performance • Privacy, security and standardization • Management of change • Extent of process reform • Varying comfort level with IT/screens
20 % Technology 35 % Business Process Reengineering 40 % Change Management 5% Luck ! Enablers of e-Government Technology Process People
Factors that Create Resistance • Often creates redundancy of employees. Fear of loss of jobs. • Changes work load, work profile and work content. forces the need for retooling and training. • Results in a loss of power and responsibility. • Alters accountability, reduces discretion and flexibility and makes performance monitorable and visible • Tends to flattens hierarchy (alters powers and authority vested in different levels). • Fear of unknown introduces resistance : introduction of new technology, changes in procedures, • Role as an intermediary between citizen and government is minimized. • Perception that some one else will get the credit for the success of the system • Technical performance- poor access, lack of bandwidth, down time, slow response, frequent break down, software problems
Resistance from Key Stakeholders • Senior Civil Servants • Loss of information power because of greater transparency • Unnecessary risk with no commensurate personal credit • Fear of technology and exposure of IT illiteracy • Supervisors • New learning because of changed procedures • Greater accountability • Effort spent in implementation without clear idea of benefits • Resistance from workers • Operating staff • New learning because changed role and procedures • Different work • Implications on job security • Loss of power and ability to seek rent? • Implementation team home grown or imported?
Wrong Approach of Technology People • IT specialist still tend to seek universal formulae for successful practice, while ignoring or downplaying the messiness of human factors in different environments. • The scale and complexity of organizational change proposed by e-Gov Framework necessitates a managerial rather than technical approach • Priority of goals changes with changes in political leadership or very high level champion’s goal, are sometimes not shared generally • The culture gap: IS People are- complicators, profession thrives on mystique of technology. • Not enough careful listening to users • Stretching the skills of IS professionals
Management Of Change • Design compensatory benefits for real losses due to change for employees. Communicate positives and negatives honestly • Ensure organization climate is right • Shared values with advocates of change • Participative design • Quality of work life, job satisfaction as explicit objectives • Training and education • Ensure all stakeholders understand • Expected pay off • Role of stakeholders & others in terms of new tasks, skills, training • Counseling service, feedback on understanding • Organisation to manage change • Identify champions and legitimize role • Project team, command structure • User lead design groups • Identity obstacles to change in advance of implementation • Financial, technical, organisational, social, anti champions • Determine implementation strategy staged/phased, incentive structure
Strategies Used for Handling Resistance • Bhoomi: Invoke TINA, Training, Bypass, Political support, Media • Property Registration: Training, Direct communication, demonstration of what is in store, compromise • AMC: participative design, training • eSeva: Arm twisting (Political pressure), involve community
Cultural shift for Civil Servants Ultimately E-Gov technology is a tool to implement efficient Civil Servant to Citizen communication/Interaction, and it relies on the good will of Civil Servants. A Civil Servant provide services mainly because of personal dedication. Jobs are secure. Only gross violation can really be “accounted” and Handled. Promotions are linked to: “Maturity” New skills learned Office Politics Good service cannot be accounted and therefore cannot be rewarded. New Technologies are threatening BECAUSE of the new efficiencies. Traditional model Tracking quality of services enable to reward personal dedication. Promotions are linked to: “Maturity” New skills learned and applied Personal capacity and creativity (Office Politics) New Technologies are opportunities THANKS to the new revenue streams created E-Gov model
Importance of Awareness • People have inertia in trying new ways to access service. Uptake has to be driven • Awareness about • How the system functions • What can the citizen’s expect-citizen charter • Why bribes are not necessary • How can problems be resolved? • What are the best means of creating awareness