Emc safety weee rohs compliance overview steve ferguson
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EMC – Safety WEEE – RoHS Compliance Overview Steve Ferguson. Requirements. Established by government legislation Administered by national and local government bodies Purpose: Provide for public safety Provide for operation of public communication and electronic systems. Safety concerns.

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Requirements l.jpg
Requirements

  • Established by government legislation

  • Administered by national and local government bodies

  • Purpose:

    • Provide for public safety

    • Provide for operation of public communication and electronic systems


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Safety concerns

  • Electrical shock (contact, insulation breakdown)

  • Energy related (burns, arcing, ejection of molten metal)

  • Fire (fire spread)

  • Thermal (contact burn, insulation breakdown, ignition)

  • Mechanical (cuts, pinch, crush, equipment instability, particulate ejection)

  • Radiation (sonic, RF, infra-red, ultraviolet, ionizing, high intensity visible)

  • Chemical (contact, inhalation)


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WEEE-RoHS concerns

  • Exposure to hazardous materials

    • Air contamination (inhalation)

    • Contact (transfer of contamination)

    • Ingestion (water, etc.)

  • Waste control

    • Management of waste volume

    • Recycling of natural resources


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EMC concerns

  • Emissions

    • Potential for interference to electronic equipment

    • Exposure to radiated energy

  • Immunity (Susceptibility)

    • Operation impact from man-made and natural RF energy


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Safety compliance - US

  • NRTL

    • Products evaluated to specific safety criteria and listed by the approved laboratory

    • Ongoing service agreement to assure that listed item maintains conformity

    • Production testing for critical elements

      • Electric strength (hi-pot)

      • Protective earth continuity (ground impedance)

  • FDA

    • Products considered medical are evaluated by the FDA through 510K application


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Safety compliance - CE

  • Directives

    • Machinery directive (98/37/EC) g calls out safety & EMC

    • Low voltage directive (73/23/EC)

    • Medical device directive (93/42/EEC) g calls out safety and EMC

    • Products evaluated to specific safety criteria for:

      • Electrical hazards (shock, energy)

      • Fire hazards (initiating fire, containment)

      • Burn hazards (access, ignition, insulation breakdown)

      • Mechanical hazards (access to moving parts, particulate ejection)

      • Radiation hazards (noise, laser, x-ray, etc.)

      • Chemical hazards (containment, ventilation)

    • Product specific standards are used

    • Manufacturer declares conformity and is responsible to maintain the conformity

  • Many other directives (toys, pressure vessels, etc.) are active and may apply in conjunction or be specified as clauses


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WEEE-RoHS compliance

  • US

    • National legislation not in effect

    • State governments enacting legislation

      • California leading

      • Others have some activity

  • Europe

    • Directives in effect

  • Details in WEEE-RoHS presentation later today


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EMC compliance - US

  • FCC

    • US commercial

    • Applies to

      • Unintentional emitters

      • RF transmitters

    • Regulates emissions (not immunity)

    • CFR 47, Part 15

      • ITE/Digital Devices (CIPSR 22 satisfies requirements)

      • Receivers

      • Unlicensed transmitters

    • CFR47, Parts ----

      • Specific parts for designated applications

        • Part 22 - Cellular devices

        • Part 90 - Licensed private land mobile radio

        • Others (Television, Satellite, Education, Amateur, etc.)

    • FCC OET Bulletin 65, Supplement C

      • RF Exposure Levels to Humans

  • ACTA – Administrative Council for Terminal Attachments

    • Telecommunications – Part 68


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EMC Compliance - Canada

  • Industry Canada

    • Formally Dept. of Communications

    • ICES-003 – unintentional emitters (US Part 15 harmonized)

    • CS03 – telecommunications products

    • RSS-210 – non-licensed RF products

    • RSS-119 – Land Mobile and Fixed Radio


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EMC Compliance - CE

  • Directives

    • EMC Directive

      • 89/336/EEC (repeal 7/20/2007)

      • 2004/108/EC (effective 7/20/2007) – conformity by 7/20/2009

    • R&TTE Directive 1999/5/EC

      • Intentional emitters

      • Telecom networks


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EMC Compliance - Other

  • Military

    • MIL-STD-464A applies to systems

    • MIL-STD-461 for equipment (called out by MIL-STD-464A)

    • National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA Manual)

  • Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    • US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.180 currently in use

    • Provides for dual path of compliance testing

      • MIL-STD-461, previously used by EPRI TR-102323

      • IEC 61000 series of EMI/RFI test methods

    • Both approaches impose more stringent requirements than commercial specifications and call out stringent test methods and limits

  • Telecomm industry

    • Bellcore (Telcordia) requirements for EMC, safety, environmental

    • Each company amends with specific requirements


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Safety evaluation basics

  • General

    • Are instructions provided for proper installation and operation?

    • Do warnings and labels conform to standards?

  • Electrical shock/energy

    • Is access to shock hazards controlled?

    • Does chassis damage permit access?

    • Are components approved?

  • Fire/Burn

    • Does operation or a fault present a hazard?

    • Is potential for fire spread controlled?

    • Is access to hot surfaces prevented?

    • Are components approved?

  • Mechanical

    • Is access to moving parts controlled?

    • Is potential for flying debris controlled?

    • Is the item stable?

  • Radiation

    • Is exposure to hazardous radiation controlled?

    • Are components approved?

  • Chemical

    • Is exposure to chemicals controlled?


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EMC emission evaluation basics

  • General

    • Are all potential modes of operation examined?

    • Is the test article representative of production?

    • Are cables in place that represent recommended?

  • Intentional emitter

    • Are emissions contained within the permitted frequency range?

    • Is the transmit power limited to the maximum allowed?

    • Does environmental conditions alter the performance?

    • Are installation and operation instructions provided?

  • Unintentional emitter

    • Are radiated emission levels below the allowed threshold?

    • Are conducted emission levels below the allowed threshold?

  • Special

    • Are particular emission modes applicable (e.g., magnetic fields)?

    • Are harmonic and flicker levels below the allowed threshold?


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EMC immunity evaluation basics

  • Does the unit perform within tolerance when

    • Exposed to ESD events?

    • Exposed to RF radiated fields?

    • Exposed to electrically fast transients on the cables?

    • Exposed to induced lightning surge transients on the cables?

    • Exposed to induced RF current on the cables?

    • Exposed to magnetic fields?

    • Exposed to power input voltage dips/interrupts?

    • Power harmonic energy on the power input?

    • Radiated transient energy?

  • Is the performance criteria defined?

  • Is there a method to monitor performance ?


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Directive 2004/40/EC

  • Deals with health and safety requirements regarding exposure of workers to risks arising from electromagnetic fields

  • Compliance mandatory from 30 April 2008

  • Generic standard EN 50392 comes into force on 1 October 2006 but is not currently required for demonstrating compliance

  • EN 50366 providing for magnetic field evaluation of household and similar appliances within the scope of the Low Voltage Directive became mandatory 1 February 2006


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EMC Design

  • The next speaker will be dealing with basics of EMC design


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