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Introduction to Safety

Introduction to Safety

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Introduction to Safety

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  1. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  2. Safety Awareness Recognizing Hazards First Aid Protecting the Spine Treating for Shock Control Severe Bleeding Choking & Rescue Breathing Fractures Eye Injuries Substance Abuse Overview Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  3. Safety is # 1 • SAFETY must be your number 1 priority AT ALL TIMES! • ALWAYS remember that work in the elevator industry can be dangerous to coworkers & the public Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  4. Safety Awareness • Other Workers • Housekeeping • Falling Objects • Moving Machinery • Fall Hazards– Open Hoistways • Airborne Hazards • Familiarize Yourself with Hazards of Equipment You’re Working on Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  5. Workplace Accidents

  6. Construction Industry Accidents

  7. OSHA • Occupational Safety & Health Administration • Compiles data & keeps records of workplace accidents Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  8. Recognizing Hazards • Watch out for distractions & carelessness • Always follow safety procedures Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  9. Typical geared traction elevator system • Complicated piece of machinery with numerous possibilities for injury Figure 3-Geared Traction Elevator

  10. Falls and Falling Objects • Falls CAN be prevented: Use safety equipment! • Install Lifelines: a wire rope suspended from the top of the hoistway and extended down to the pit • Keep your work area clean • Correctly place ladders to avoid slipping or falling backward Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  11. Falls & Falling Objects • Avoid reaching more than an arm’s length when on a ladder • Watch out for falling objects, i.e., concrete blocks, reinforcement rods, angle iron, channel iron • On a construction site, wear a hard hat at all times Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  12. Review Questions 1. To prevent falls, the lanyard on your body harness is attached to a ________ suspended in the hoistway. 2. (True or False) If you fall only ten or twelve feet, you will probably not be injured. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  13. Review Questions 3. (T/F) When working from a ladder, you should not try to reach too far to the side because the ladder might tip. 4. (T/F) Falling objects have been responsible for a number of Elevator Constructor fatalities. 5. (T/F) Cleaning solvents used in the Elevator Industry are non-flammable. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  14. Traction Elevator Machine Room • Tuck in loose-fitting clothing, confine long hair & remove all jewelry Figure 4-Geared Traction Machine

  15. Lockout/ tagout the main line disconnect switch before working on energized equipment Figure 5-Motor Generator Set

  16. Fly Ball Governor • Note pinch points where the governor rope passes over sheave and where flyballs are spinning around • AGAIN, watch for loose clothing! Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  17. Figure 6- Flyball Governor Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  18. Hydraulic Elevator Machine Room • Power/pumping unit of a hydraulic elevator is usually enclosed with some type of guard Figure 7-Hydraulic Power Unit

  19. Hydraulic Elevator Machine Room • Motor drives the pump directly • No belts • Motor and pump are completely submerged in oil. The only exposed part is the valve assembly. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  20. Figure 8-Submersible Hydraulic Power Unit

  21. Review Questions 6. (T/F) A motor-generator set that is not running may start unexpectedly at any time. 7. (T/F) Loose clothing could become entangled between the hoist ropes and the drive sheave of an elevator machine. 8. (True or False) The governor is not a hazard because it is totally enclosed. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  22. Review Questions 9. (True or False) Pump drive belts on a hydraulic elevator must be checked when the elevator is running to get a true reading. 10. (True or False) Oil in a hydraulic reservoir is often hot enough to burn your skin. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  23. Electricity • Greatest hazard in the machine room • NEVER forget that you’re surrounded by LIVE electrical equipment • .005 amperes is enough to be fatal • Remove: rings, metal-framed glasses, large belt buckles, watches, hand tools, etc. • Mild shock can cause you to react & injure yourself Introduction to Safety - Trade Skills 105

  24. There are numerous exposed electrical terminals on the back side of the controller as well. Figure 9- Elevator Controller Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  25. Review Questions 11. (True or False) As little as .005 amperes of electric current can be fatal. 12. (True or False) A mild shock is not dangerous because you will automatically react by pulling away from it. 13. (True or False) When in the machine room, you are surrounded by live electrical equipment. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  26. Hazards in the Hoistway • During service, it’s often necessary to ride on top of the elevator car using the car top inspection station • Always a possibility you could fall from car top • Due to the chance of entanglement, personal Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  27. Hazards in the Hoistways • Fall-arrest system shall never be used on top of a completed, operational elevator car unless the elevator locked-out & tagged-out • Electrical and mechanical hazards Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  28. Hazards in the Hoistways • Covers should be placed over all electrical terminals and connections • If you need to remove a cover-- replace it before leaving • Exposed live electrical equipment • The door operator control box “music box” – many electrical hazards • Be cautious lighting or convenience outlets Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  29. Figure 10- Double Wrap Gearless Machine

  30. Figure 11- Divided Beam Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  31. Dumbwaiter • Mini elevator used to transport materials • Capacity is limited by Code based on the inside net car volume • Not designed/intended to carry passengers • Car gate assembly • If trapped, don’t stand on top of car until you are certain it can support your weight & tools and car is equipped with safeties Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  32. Review Questions 14. (True or False) You must be aware of electrical and mechanical hazards, as well as the danger of falling, when working on top of the elevator car. 15. If the elevator is roped 2:1, there will be a ________ ________ on top of the car, mounted to the crosshead. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  33. Review Questions 16. As the elevator car runs up or down through the hoistway, the ________ travels in the opposite direction. 17. (True or False) Usually, there are no more than 1¹⁄2 to 2 inches of clearance between the car and counterweight. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  34. Review Questions 18. (T/F) The capacity of a dumbwaiter is limited by Code to 800 pounds. 19. (T/F) Because they are small, dumbwaiters are not very dangerous to work on. 20. (T/F) Some types of dumbwaiter doors cannot be opened from inside the hoistway. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  35. Traction Elevator Pit • Never jump into a pit • Use a ladder when pit is below the access point • Never work in a pit with standing water • Always plug tools & portable lights into a GFCI protected outlet Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  36. Traction Elevator Pit • Counterweight assembly of a traction elevator system • Danger whenever you’re working in the pit • When the car is traveling toward the top of the hoistway, the counterweight is plunging downward toward the pit without making a sound— “SILENT KILLER” Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  37. On some elevators, compensating ropes or chains are attached to the bottom of the car and counterweight • Offset transfer of weight as the hoist ropes pass over the main driving sheave Figure 12- Traction Elevator Pit Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  38. In the pit of every traction elevator you will see a governor tension sheave like the one shown in Figure 13 Figure 13-Governor Tension Sheave Assembly

  39. Figure 14-Pit Stop Switch Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  40. Hydraulic Elevator Pit • Contains very little equipment • The jack: • cylinder which may be in the ground • plunger which pushes the elevator up • packing head to seal the oil around the plunger • buffer springs, limit switches Introduction to Safety - Trade Skills 105

  41. Figure 15-Hydraulic Elevator Pit Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  42. Elevator Constructors have been crushed to death by improperly or inadequately supported hydraulic elevators Figure 16- Elevator Car supported on Jack Posts

  43. Adequate Lighting • YOU are responsible for a well lit working area • Portable lights should be equipped w/ guards to prevent contact with the bulb • Shouldn’t be suspended from their cords • Extension cords: good condition, correctly sized, plugged into a GFCI protected outlet Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  44. Adequate Lighting • Rough service light bulbs recommended (filament doesn’t break when you lay the light down) • Don’t run cords through openings (i.e.- doorways) unless protected Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  45. Review Questions 21. (T/F) When working in the pit of a traction elevator, the counterweight can be a hazard. 22. (T/F) There will usually be a governor tension sheave in the pit of a traction elevator. 23. (T/F) The governor tension sheave is not a hazard because it is mounted up out of the way. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  46. Review Questions 24. You must always place the ________ ________ ________ in the OFF position before entering the pit. 25. (True or False) It is possible for a hydraulic elevator car to move downward without power. Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  47. Lifting, Strains & Sprains • Most common injuries in industry are back sprain and strain • Inspect & clear the route over which you will carry an object • Don’t attempt to lift more than you are physically able-- Know your limits! • Wear gloves to protect your hands Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  48. Figure 17- Right & Wrong Ways to Lift Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105

  49. Lifting, Strains & Sprains • Strain: muscle is stretched beyond its limits • Can happen when lifting more than your capacity • For a strain to heal, you must rest • Sprain: tendons/ligaments become torn • Twisting/turning while lifting can cause a sprain • Treatment may require surgery Introduction to Safety - Trade Skills 105

  50. Lifting, Strains & Sprains • Most serious consequence of incorrect lifting: spinal injury • Almost always requires surgery • Recovery is slow • You may never fully recover Introduction to Safety Trade Skills 105