The Stages of Life • Infancy… Birth-18 months • Toddlerhood… 2-4 • School Age… 5-12 • Adolescence… 13-20 • Young Adulthood… 21-35 • Middle Adulthood… 35-65 • Older Adulthood… 65 and older
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Theory • http://www.businessballs.com/erik_erikson_psychosocial_theory.htm#freud's_psychosexual_stages
Young Adulthood (21-35) • physical changes slow down and many people enter a period of peak health • begin to get a clearer sense of identity and relate to their parents on a more adult level. • learn to value commitment in relationships…may choose to marry and have a family • become financially independent…scary and fulfilling! • should develop healthy lifestyles to prevent health problems later in life
Identify the leading cause of death in young adults.List 2 actions they can take to reduce the risk of dying during this period. #1 Cause – UNINTENTIONAL INJURIES #2 Cause – HOMICIDE To Reduce the risk of dying, focus on controllable risk factors, such as… - Alcohol use/abuse - Drug use/abuse - Drinking & Driving -Engaging in high risk activities (daredevil stunts) Causes of death for people over age 65 #1 Heart Disease #2 Cancer
Middle Adulthood • Ages 35 to 65 • muscle tone and strength may diminish but can be maintained with regular exercise • may have a strong sense of identity and be leaders at work and in their families • Increased responsibilities can cause stress-If they don’t learn to cope with this stress, it can lead to health problems. • must watch their diets and exercise to avoid health risks such as cancer and heart disease • Menopause: the period of time when a woman stops ovulating and menstruating-Typically age 50-55 • begin to accept mortality as they see friends and loved ones die • A midlife crisis: the sense of uncertainty about one’s identity that some people experience in midlife. Middle-aged adults may get
Older Adulthood • People over 65 • may not recover from illness as quickly as when they were younger • generally more emotionally stable than when younger, but they may also struggle with depression, anxiety, and loneliness • Why??? • social and financial lives change significantly after they retire • Alzheimer’s disease: one gradually loses mental capacity and the ability to carry out daily activities
Myths and Facts Opinion Survey (Agree or Disagree) _________ “Old” people are always sick. _________ Most people over 65 are institutionalized. _________ People over 65 do not have any sexual desires._________ Most people over 65 retain their normal mental abilities. _________ Mental illness is common among people over 65. ________ The majority of people over 65 can work as effectively as younger workers. ________ The majority of people over 65 are socially isolated. ________ Major depression occurs more frequently for teenagers than for people over 65. ________ Businesses often do not hire people over 65 because of their age.
Ageism • Ageism – a form of discrimination that relegates people to an inferior or limited position simply because of age -Have you ever experienced or known anyone who experienced prejudice or discrimination based on age?
Stereotypes and Ageism • “When you hear, see or think the word teenagers, what other words come to mind?” • What do you notice about attitudes toward young people? • In what situations have you felt people prejudge you because of your age? • How have negative attitudes affected how you feel or what you do? • How have positive attitudes about young people helped you?
Stereotypes and Ageism • “When you hear, see or think the word old, what other words come to mind?” • How do you perceive your grandparents? • Do they fit the stereotypes? • How do your grandparents perceive you?
Life Changes - Similarities Between Young and Old Category Teenagers/Young AdultsOlder Adults Transportation -Getting permission to drive; -Told they should not drive; Higher insurance rates Higher insurance rates Work -Told they are too young, -Told they are too old, too too inexperienced experienced, unfamiliar with new technology Companionship -Single; dating issues -Single (widowed); dating issues Income -Low-paying jobs -No income from earnings Sex -Told they are too young -Told they are too old Drugs -Use of “recreational” drugs -Misuse of prescription or over the counter drugs Housing -Moving away from home; -Moving to smaller place; -Have to live with parents for -Have to live with adult children economic reasons for economic and health reasons Friends -Friends moving away -Friends moving away or dying Dependency -Parents tell them what to do -Adult children tell them what to do Aging -Physical changes related to age -Physical changes related to age Emotions -Occasional depression, feelings of -Occasional depression, feelings of hopelessness, sometimes leading to hopelessness, sometimes leading to suicide suicide Time Try to find meaningful ways to use Try to find meaningful ways to use time during school years time during retirement years ___________________ From Couper, D. and Pratt, F., Learning for Longer Life, National Academy for Teaching and Learning about Aging, 1999.
Aging & Changes • Social • Emotional • Mental • Spiritual • Physical
Aging & ChangesPHYSICAL • Vision • Hearing • Touch • Strength/Dexterity • Taste • Smell • Balance
Changes in Vision • Farsightedness • Night blindness • Color vision • Cataracts • Blindness: glaucoma, arteriosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes
Changes in Hearing • Auditory nerve damage • Changes in structure of the ear • Deterioration of the brain • Decreased ability to hear intensity or volume of sound • Decreased ability to discriminate between similar words
Changes in Dexterity, Agility, & Balance • Lean body mass declines • As a young adult, 43% of the body weight is muscle; By age 70, lean body mass declines to about 25% • Increase in fat cells • Increase to about 1/3 of body weight by at 70 • Decreased endurance and reaction time • Dizziness may occur (vertigo) • Stiffening of joints • Poor posture
Changes in Touch • Reduced tactile sensation (Touch messages don’t get sent to the brain) • Can’t tie shoes • Can’t respond to heat • Can’t feel a bruise • Reasons for loss of touch sensation: • Parkinson’s • Cardiovascular incidents • Lack of blood flow to swelling • Arthritis • Limited use of extremities due to sedentary lifestyle or bedridden
State three ways that you can help an older adult to lead a healthier life. • Visit • Sit and listen. Ask what they would do in certain situations. Ask advice and opinions. • Offer to do household chores • They’ll love having you around while you get work done that perhaps they can’t do • Bring Food • Bake cookies and deliver them personally. Ask if they need groceries and offer to get them • Walk with them • If they are able walk outside on a nice day. Keeping them moving and in the fresh air is good for their health
Define life expectancy. • The average length of time an individual is expected to live • Average life expectancy in U.S. (2007): 77.9 yrs • Rates for the top three leading causes—heart disease, cancer, and stroke—continued a long-term decreasing trend. Significant increases occurred for suicide and chronic liver disease and cirrhosis. cdc.gov
Identify four habits you can begin today to improve your quality of life in 10 years. • Establish regular exercise patterns • Don’t Smoke (heart disease, cancer) • Don’t Drink (accidents, alcoholism, liver disease) • Maintain a healthy weight (diabetes) • Lower salt intake
Favorite Web Sites http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0511/sights_n_sounds/index.html http://parentswish.com/site01/big.html