Download
social psychology by david g myers 11 th edition n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Social Psychology by David G. Myers 11 th Edition PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Social Psychology by David G. Myers 11 th Edition

Social Psychology by David G. Myers 11 th Edition

1040 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Social Psychology by David G. Myers 11 th Edition

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Social Psychologyby David G. Myers 11th Edition CHAPTRE 10 Prejudice

  2. Contents

  3. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Defining Prejudice • A preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members. • Prejudice is an attitude. • The negative evaluation that mark prejudice often are supported by negative beliefs, called stereotypes.

  4. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Defining Prejudice • Stereotype: A belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. Stereotypes are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information (and sometimes accurate)

  5. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Defining Prejudice • Discrimination: unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members. • Racism

  6. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Defining Prejudice • Discrimination: unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members. • Sexism

  7. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Prejudice: Implicit and Explicit • Dual attitude system

  8. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Prejudice: Implicit and Explicit • Dual attitude system • Explicit attitudes may change dramatically with education • Implicit attitudes may linger, changing only as we form new habits through practice.

  9. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Racial Prejudice • Is racial prejudice disappearing? • Yes, it does.

  10. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Racial Prejudice • Is racial prejudice disappearing? • No, it does not. • The 6604 reported hate crime incidents during 2009. • The small proportion of Whites who would not vote for a Black president candidate.

  11. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Racial Prejudice • Subtle forms of prejudice • Market discrimination • Traffic stops

  12. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Racial Prejudice • Automatic prejudice

  13. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Racial Prejudice • Automatic prejudice

  14. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Gender Prejudice • Gender stereotypes • Strong gender stereotype exist • Members of the stereotyped group accept the stereotypes • 78% of men thought females were emotional; women were identical.

  15. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Gender Prejudice • Sexism: Benevolent and Hostile

  16. What is The Nature and Power of Prejudice? • Gender Prejudice • Is gender discrimination fast becoming extinct? • As with racial prejudice, blatant gender prejudice is dying, but subtle bias lives. • People tend to prefer having baby boys.

  17. What Are The Social Sources of Prejudice? • Social Inequalities: Unequal Status and Prejudice • Social dominance orientation: a motivation to have one’s group dominate other social groups

  18. What Are The Social Sources of Prejudice? • Socialization • The authoritarian personality: A personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of out-groups and those lower in status. • Different forms of prejudice-toward blacks, gays and lesbians, women-do tend to coexist in the same individuals

  19. Socialization Religion and Prejudice What Are The Social Sources of Prejudice?

  20. Socialization Religion and Prejudice Religion cause prejudice White church members express more racial prejudice than nonmembers Those professing fundamentalist beliefs express more prejudice than those professing more progress beliefs. What Are The Social Sources of Prejudice?

  21. Socialization Religion and Prejudice Religion does not cause prejudice Among church members, faithful church attenders were , in 24 out of 26 comparisons, less prejudiced than occasional attenders. Depends on how we ask the question What Are The Social Sources of Prejudice?

  22. Socialization Conformity If prejudice is socially accepted, many people will follow the path of least resistance and conform to the fashion. What Are The Social Sources of Prejudice?

  23. What Are The Social Sources of Prejudice? • Institutional Support • Social institutions (schools, government, media) may bolster prejudice through overt policies.

  24. What Are The Motivation Sources of Prejudice? • Frustration and Aggression: The Scapegoat Theory • Realistic group conflict theory: the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources.

  25. What Are The Motivation Sources of Prejudice? • Social Identity Theory: Feeling Superior to Others • In-group Bias: the tendency to favor one’s own group.

  26. What Are The Motivation Sources of Prejudice? • Social Identity Theory: Feeling Superior to Others • In-group Bias: the tendency to favor one’s own group. • In-group bias expresses and supports a positive self-concept • In-group bias feeds favoritism • Must in-group liking foster out-group disliking? • YES • NO

  27. What Are The Motivation Sources of Prejudice? • Social Identity Theory: Feeling Superior to Others • Need for status • Self-regard • Belonging

  28. What Are The Motivation Sources of Prejudice? • Motivation to Avoid Prejudice • Aware of the gap between how they should feel and how they do feel, self-conscious people will feel guilt and try to inhibit their prejudicial response.

  29. What Are The Cognitive Sources of Prejudice? • Categorization: Classifying People into Groups • Spontaneous categorization

  30. What Are The Cognitive Sources of Prejudice? • Distinctiveness: Perceiving People Who Stand Out • Distinctive people

  31. What Are The Cognitive Sources of Prejudice? • Distinctiveness: Perceiving People Who Stand Out • Distinctiveness feeds self-consciousness

  32. What Are The Cognitive Sources of Prejudice? • Distinctiveness: Perceiving People Who Stand Out • Vivid cases

  33. What Are The Cognitive Sources of Prejudice? • Distinctiveness: Perceiving People Who Stand Out • Distinctive events foster illusory correlations

  34. What Are The Cognitive Sources of Prejudice? • Attribution: Is it a Just World? • Group-serving bias: Explaining away out-group members’ positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior by one’s own group)

  35. What Are The Cognitive Sources of Prejudice? • Attribution: Is it a Just World? • The just-world phenomenon: The tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

  36. What Are The Consequences of Prejudice? • Self-Perpetuating Prejudgments

  37. What Are The Consequences of Prejudice? • Discrimination’s impact: The Self-Fulfilling prophecy • Social beliefs can be self-confirming

  38. What Are The Consequences of Prejudice? • Stereotype Threat

  39. What Are The Consequences of Prejudice? • Stereotype Threat

  40. What Are The Consequences of Prejudice? • Do Stereotypes Bias Judgments of Individuals? • People sometimes maintain general prejudices without applying their prejudice to particular individuals whom they know and respect. • Strong stereotypes matter • Stereotypes bias interpretation

  41. 如何减少偏见? • 接触假说 • 两个团体地位平等 • 追求共同的目标 • 接触能够得到法律或风俗的认可和支持

  42. 如何减少偏见? • 合作与互倚:拼图教室 • 学习内容被分为几个部分,每一部分内容都是唯一并且重要的,就好像一张拼图一样,必须将它们拼在一起,才看得到一张完整的图画。