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EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY (7th Edition) David Myers. Professor: Dr. Ahsani. 4. Myers Website: http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/myers7e/ My email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Thinking Critically With Psychological Science Chapter 1. Thinking Critically With Psychological Science. What is Psychology?
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EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY(7th Edition)David Myers Professor: Dr. Ahsani
4 • Myers Website: http://bcs.worthpublishers.com/myers7e/ My email: email@example.com
Thinking Critically With Psychological Science What is Psychology? • Psychology’s Roots • Contemporary Psychology • Why Do Psychology? • What About Intuition and Common Sense? • The Scientific Attitude • Critical Thinking • How Do Psychologists Ask and Answer Questions? • The Scientific Method • Description • Correlation • Experimentation
Psychology With hopes of satisfying curiosity, many people listen to talk-radio counselors and psychics to learn about others and themselves. http://www.photovault.com http://www.nbc.com Dr. Crane (radio-shrink) Psychic (Ball gazing)
“Psychology has a long past, but a short history” • 500,000 BC: trephining to allow the escape of evil spirits. • 430 BC: Hippocrates argues for four temperaments of personality. • Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) suggests that the soul and body are not separate and that knowledge grows from experience. • 1689 AD: John Locke introduces idea of tabula rasa. • 1807: Franz Josef Gall proposes phrenology.
Psychological Science is Born Wundt and psychology’s first graduate students studied the “atoms of the mind” by conducting experiments at Leipzig, Germany, in 1879. This work is considered the birth of psychology as we know it today. Wundt (1832-1920)
Psychological Science is Born James (1842-1910) Mary Calkins American philosopher William James wrote an important 1890 psychology textbook. Mary Calkins, James’s student, became the APA’s first female president.
Psychological Science is Born Freud (1856-1939) Sigmund Freud, an Austrian physician, and his followers emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind and its effects on human behavior.
Psychological Science Develops Behaviorists Skinner (1904-1990) Watson (1878-1958) Watson and later Skinner emphasized the study of overt behavior as the subject matter of scientific psychology.
Psychological Science Develops Humanistic Psychology Maslow (1908-1970) http://facultyweb.cortland.edu Rogers (1902-1987) http://www.carlrogers.dk Maslow and Rogers emphasized current environmental influences on our growth potential and our need for love and acceptance.
Psychology Today We define psychology today as the scientific study of behavior (what we do) and mental processes (inner thoughts and feelings).
Psychological Associations & Societies The American Psychological Association is the largest organization of psychology with 160,000 members world-wide, followed by the British Psychological Society with 34,000 members.
Chapter 1 Part 2
Which perspective is most relevant to understanding the impact of strokes and brain diseases on memory? A)Evolutionary B)Behavioral C)Psychodynamic D)Neuroscience
Psychology’s Subfields: Research Data: APA 1997
Psychology’s Subfields: Applied Data: APA 1997
Clinical Psychology vs. Psychiatry A clinical psychologist (Ph.D.) studies, assesses, and treats troubled people with psychotherapy. Psychiatrists on the other hand are medical professionals (M.D.) who use treatments like drugs and psychotherapy to treat psychologically diseased patients.
Why Do Psychology? • How can we differentiate between uniformed opinions and examined conclusions? • The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and actas they do!
What About Intuition & Common Sense? Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error.
Hindsight Bias Hindsight Bias is the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. After learning the outcome of an event, many people believe they could have predicted that very outcome. We only knew the dot.com stocks would plummet after they actually did plummet.
The Scientific Attitude The scientific attitude is composed of curiosity (passion for exploration), skepticism (doubting and questioning) and humility (ability to accept responsibility when wrong).
How Do Psychologists Ask & Answer Questions? Psychologists, like all scientists, use the scientific method to construct theories that organize, summarize and simplify observations.
Theory A theory isan explanation that integrates principles and organizes and predicts behavior or events. Examples??
Hypothesis A hypothesis is a testable prediction, often prompted by a theory, to enable us to accept, reject or revise the theory. It is a statement It must be falsifiable Operational definition
2 Critical thinking guidelines
12.Two basic characteristics of the scientific attitude are: A)pride and enthusiasm. B)ingenuity and practicality. C)creativity and patience. D)skepticism and humility.
In a written report of their research, psychologists specify exactly how anxiety is assessed, thus providing their readers with a(n): A)hypothesis. B)independent variable. C)operational definition. D)case study.
2 Descriptive methods Methods that yield descriptions of behavior, but not necessarily causal explanations Include Case studies Observational studies Psychological tests Surveys
Description Case Study A technique in which one person is studied in depth to reveal underlying behavioral principles. Susan Kuklin/ Photo Researchers Is language uniquely human?
Survey A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes, opinions or behaviors of people usually done by questioning a representative, random sample of people. http://www.lynnefeatherstone.org
Survey Wording Effects Wording can change the results of a survey.
Survey Random Sampling If each member of a population has an equal chance of inclusion into a sample, it is called a random sample (unbiased). If the survey sample is biased, its results are not valid. The fastest way to know about the marble color ratio is to blindly transfer a few into a smaller jar and count them.
Naturalistic Observation Observing and recording the behavior of animals in the wild and recording self-seating patterns in a multiracial school lunch room constitute naturalistic observation. Courtesy of Gilda Morelli
Descriptive Methods Summary Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observation describe behaviors.
The case study is a research method in which: A)a single individual is studied in great depth. B)a representative sample of people are questioned regarding their opinions or behaviors. C)organisms are carefully observed in a laboratory environment. D)an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.
Chapter 1 Part 3
3. Indicates direction of relationship (positive or negative) Correlation coefficient 2. Indicates strength of relationship (0.00 to 1.00) Correlation When one trait or behavior accompanies another, we say the two correlate. 1.Correlation Coefficient is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables. r = + 0.37
2 Direction of correlations Positive correlations An association between increases in one variable and increases in another, or decreases in one variable and decreases in the other. Negative correlations An association between increases in one variable and decreases in another.
2 Scatterplots Correlations can be represented by scatterplots.
Correlation and Causation Correlation does not mean causation! or
Correlation refers to the extent to which two variables: A)vary together. B)are random samples. C)influence each other. D)show statistically significant differences.
Experimentation Exploring Cause and Effect Like other sciences, experimentation is the backbone of psychological research. Experiments isolate causes and their effects.