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Portal MR Venography . with slides borrowed from. Tom Grist, MD Jorg Debatin, MD Qian Dong, MD Ruth Carlos, MD David Stafford-Johnson, MD Mohammed Neimatallah, MD Brian Hamilton, MD Jochen Gaa, MD. Portal venous phase. Arterial phase. Coronal 3D Gd MRA of Portal Vein. Coronal Plane

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portal mr venography

Portal MR Venography

with slides borrowed from

Tom Grist, MD

Jorg Debatin, MD

Qian Dong, MD

Ruth Carlos, MD

David Stafford-Johnson, MD

Mohammed Neimatallah, MD

Brian Hamilton, MD

Jochen Gaa, MD

slide2

Portal venous phase

Arterial phase

slide3

Coronal 3D Gd MRA of Portal Vein

  • Coronal Plane
  • Field of view = width of patient (28-32 cm)
  • Thick slices: 3-5 mm
  • Zero padding
  • Fast enough for breath holding
    • TR < 10 msec
    • TE < 3 msec
    • Partial Fourier imaging (0.5 NEX)
    • Adjust phase encoding steps (128-224)
  • Three phases
    • Arterial
    • Portal venous
    • Equilibrium
slide4

Mesenteric Portal Protocol

  • Sequence Time
  • Sag SSFSE 0:56
  • Axial T1 5:32
  • Axial T2 & fat sat 6:04
  • MRCP (optional)
  • Coronal 3D Gd (3 phases) 0:30 x 3
  • Axial 2D TOF (optional)
  • Total imaging time ~15-25 minutes
slide5

Arterial Phase

Venous Phase

slide6

Hepatoma

Venous Phase

slide7

Fig. 7.7. Hepatoma.

Clinical Scenario: 54-year-old female with abdominal pain and elevated AFP.

Technique: Coronal Acquisition, TR/TE/Flip = 8.1/2.1/45°, Field-of-View = 320 x 320 x 96 mm, Matrix 256 x 160 x 32, Centric Ordering of k-space, Acquisition Time = 29 s, 40 ml gadolinium contrast infused at 2 ml/s, and timed empirically.

Interpretation: A coronal MIP from the portal venous-phase of the contrast bolus shows an enhancing mass in the dome of the liver with heterogenously enhancing tumor invading the right portal vein and extending down to the confluence of right and left portal veins. The main and left portal veins are widely patent.

Diagnosis: Hepatoma with invasion of right portal vein.

Submitted by Martin R. Prince, M.D., Ph.D., Ann Arbor, MI.

slide8

MIP of Entire 3D Volume

Sub-Volume MIP

Main Portal Vein

SMV

Main Portal Vein

Axial Reformation

slide9

MIP of Entire 3D Volume

Sub-Volume MIP

Right Hepatic vein

Right Hepatic vein

Axial Reformation

slide11

55 year old female prior to TIPS

Coronal 3D Gd MRA MIP during venous phase

slide12

Varices

Thick MIP

Thin MIP

slide14

Spleno-renal shunt

Anterior MIP

Posterior MIP

slide15

Fig. 7.3. MRA of Portocaval Shunt.

Clinical Scenario: 42-year-old male, status post-portocaval shunt with worsening ascites.

Technique: Coronal Acquisition, TR/TE/Flip = 7.2/1.2/45°, Field-of-View = 300 x 300, Matrix = 256 x 128, Centric Ordering of k-space, Acquisition Time = 32 s, 1 NEX, 40 ml of gadolinium infused at 2 ml/s, and timed empirically.

Interpretation: Coronal subvolume MIP (a) and magnification view (b) shows a widely patent portocaval shunt (arrows). Note also gastric varices (arrowheads). During this equilibrium phase image, there is comparable enhancement of the portal vein, IVC, and aorta.

Diagnosis: Patent portocaval shunt.

Submitted by David Stafford-Johnson, M.D., Ann Arbor, MI.

Reprinted with permission from Investigative Radiology Sept. Oct. 1998.

slide16

56 year old female with abdominal pain

Minimun intensity projections

Maximum intensity projection

slide17

Portal and hepatic vein thrombosus

Minimun intensity projections

Maximum intensity projection

slide18

Acute thrombosis of portal vein (arrows) with perithrombus enhancement (arrowheads)

Maximum Intensity Projection

slide22

Fig. 7.4. Liver Transplant.

Clinical Scenario: Status post liver transplant with increased liver function tests.

Technique: Coronal Acquisition, TR/TE/Flip = 7/2.1/45°, Field-of-View = 320 x 320 x 84 mm, Matrix = 256 x 128 x 28, Sequential Ordering of k-space, Acquisition Time = 27 s, 40 ml gadolinium contrast infused at 2 ml/ s, and timed empirically.

Interpretation: Coronal oblique subvolume MIP shows a widely patent splenic and portal veins. There is minor narrowing (arrows) at the site of anastomosis between the native and donor portal veins.

Diagnosis: Widely patent transplant portal vein.

Submitted by Martin R. Prince, M.D., Ph.D., Ann Arbor, MI. v

slide26

Post Liver Transplant with

abcess narrowing portal vein

slide28

Summary

  • Normal flow: Gd not necessary
  • Slow flow: Gd essential
  • Coronal 3D: thick slices & breathholding
  • Useful for evaluating
    • Varices
    • Shunts
    • Tumor encasement
    • Tumor invasion
    • Thrombosis
    • Cavernous transformation
    • Budd Chiari
    • Liver transplant