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P reparing Deaf & Hard of Hearing Teens for the World of Work. C r e a t e d f o r Northeast Ohio High School Students Ages 14-22. Ready for the World of Work?. We are!. The Unit’s Mission. The Six Facets. The Method. The Outcomes. Deaf & Hard of Hearing Workers Finding Role Models.
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PreparingDeaf&Hard of HearingTeensfor theWorldofWork C r e a t e d f o r Northeast Ohio High School Students Ages 14-22 Ready for the World of Work? We are! The Unit’s Mission The Six Facets The Method The Outcomes Deaf & Hard of Hearing Workers Finding Role Models Students at Risk Summer Employment Are your students’ ready? Research & Studies
The Unit’s Mission In preparing deaf teens for the world of work- Role models can help… This unit was created in mind for students ages 14-22 who are Deaf or hard of hearing and at risk from dropping out of high school. The unit’s goal is to invite local Deaf and hard of hearing workers/professionals to volunteer as role models to address critical issues faced by young deaf and hard of hearing individuals. Role models can powerfully impact high-risk students to develop ‘enduring understanding’ by increasing their self-esteem, get their high school diploma and be better prepared for the world of work. Dispel myths (ex: “Deaf can’t learn or work.”) Demonstrate varied communication modes at work Provide examples of accommodations needed at work Emphasize ‘why’ education is important and think long term (retaining students; preventing drop-out) Contradict existing “barriers” about “success” Establish peer support and accountability Understand rights and responsibilities Enhance personal growth (ex: self-esteem, recognize skills) Provide resources (ex: careers/jobs, BVR, ADA) How do we define students at risk from dropping out of high school? The Method The Six Facets The Outcomes Home
How do we identify students at risk fromdropping out of high school? The Unit’s Mission The Six Facets The Method Home Here are a few of many possibilities as to why students drop out of high school: Deaf students of hearing families who struggle to understand or accept deafness, deaf culture or sign language. Communication break-down in the home leads to poor outcome- linguistically, emotionally, socially, & educationally. Deaf students who do not have sufficient role models to help them prepare for the world of work. Deaf students of families who are unable to help due to limited resources. Deaf students of families and some teachers who unknowingly believe in myths and stereotypes about deafness which hold them back from succeeding. Deaf students of families who never graduated from H.S. Fourteen high-risk Deaf/hard of hearing students were placed in self-contained or main-streamed classrooms or both at a Northeastern Ohio inner-city high school during 2002-03. African Americans Hispanics Caucasians Seniors5 2 3 Juniors 2 Sophomores 1 1 Graduated 4 2 Stayed in school2 Border-line drop out * 2 1 Dropped out**2 1 *Border-line Drop out = Students who have missed many school days but eventually return **Dropped out = Students who have completely dropped out National Statisticsfor drop out rates (Lane, Hoffmeister & Bahan, 1996) 29%Overall drop out rate of Deaf students Residential schools 37% Deaf students in integrated setting in regular high school 54% Deaf students in self-contained classrooms only in a regular high school 57% Deaf students who has a learning or behavior disorder or blindness 36% Deaf students who are hispanic 33% Deaf females students (no statistic available for male students) 17-23%
The Six Facets The Unit’s Mission The Method Home See Facets 4-6 Of Understandings -Facet 2 - Interpretation -Facet 1- Explanation - Facet 3 - Application “Students to describe their plans to drop out or graduate from high school. Secondly, students to describe their vocational skills or educational goals they have or need in order to work. Thirdly, where would they like to work?” “Students to watch videotape of Deaf and hard of hearing workers/professionals describing their work experiences. After viewing the tape, they are to describe differ- ent work situations and the positive or negative consequences which have resulted.” See Outcome “To help students be well prepared for future job interviews- students are to identify or recognize their positive attributes, skills, and communi- cation needs.” See Outcome See Outcome
The Six Facets The Unit’s Mission The Method Home See Facets 1-3 Of Understandings - Facet 6 - Self-Knowledge -Facet 5 - Empathy -Facet 4- Perspective “Students to describe the perspectives of a a)boss/supervisor, and b) co-workers for a series of appropriate behaviors. Students to identify misconcep- tions, or misunder- standings regarding work rights & respon- sibilities, and atti- tudes or stereotypes.” See Outcome “After viewing the videotape or person- ally meeting with Deaf or hard of hearing workers- students are to identify obstacles, challenges, or emotions which are found to be similiar in their lives. “Students to assess their understanding & knowledge of what was learned from the video tapes.” See Outcome -See Outcome-
Outcomes The Unit’s Mission The Method Home for facets 1-3 - Facet 3 - Application -Facet 2 - Interpretation -Facet 1- Explanation Of the fourteen students, eight students plan to graduate. Two of these eight students desire to attend college. Six students are unsure (due to poor attendance & incomplete homework). Five of these six ‘unsure’ students believe they can find a good job without a high school diploma. Thirteen of these fourteen students have some kind of voca-tional skill. Skills range from being an animal groomer to a mechanic. Nine students indicated they do have some ideas regarding their future. Seven students have ideas of where they would like to work. Two days were set aside for the students to view the videotape. Forty-five minutes to one hour were set aside for lively discussions after viewing the tapes. At first, students were unsure how to engage in discussion however they eventually caught on. With the help of a facilitator, the students expressed their thoughts and opinions regarding negative and positive consequences. It was successful! Note: All low to high-risk students watched this tape. The high-risk students’ re- sponses were not recorded.The three students who’d dropped out and the two students who were border-line in drop- ping out were not available for this activity. All fourteen students were given personal lists of their positive attri- butes and skills written by other students and teachers. (These were individually created, printed on nice paper, inserted in plastic covers and given out at the end of the school year.) Some students were stunned when they’d received these. This activity helped them recognize or bring to remembrance of their strengths and skills through the eyes of their peers and teachers. It increased their self knowledge, self-esteem, as well as aid them to confidently prepare for job interviews when asked to describe their strengths and skills. Note: Students’ “communication needs” were not identified in this activity. Deaf workers & professionals used for this Unit
See assessment outcomes See quizzes’ outcomes Outcomes Home The Unit’s Mission The Method for facets 4-6 -Facet 5 - Empathy - Facet 6 - Self Knowledge -Facet 4- Perspective Students engaged in lively dis- cussions. One Deaf worker inter- viewed in the videotape shared with the students that she was told by her boss that she had an “attitude problem” and needed to change it. Students then dis- cussed ways to resolve attitude problems at work. We discussed ‘respect,’ ‘effective communica- tion,’ and rights & responsibili- ties. Hard of hearing persons may have higher chances of being labeled as having ‘attitude problems’ because their deafness is less obvious. Deaf students stated that they would be more open to explain their deafness with a future employer than their hard of hearing peers. After viewing the videotapes, several students expressed that they shared similar experiences as the Deaf workers. Students were able to identify similar obstacles, challenges, and emotions. Due to time constraints and difficulties in scheduling, students were not able to personally meet any Deaf or hard of hearing workers when this unit was first put into effect. Several students expressed their disappointments when Deaf/HH workers were not readily available to serve as role models. This proves that Deaf role models are important to students who lack role models in their own lives. Quizzes and assessments were given to students to assess their understanding of Deaf workers interviewed in the videotapes. Students made comments such as- “I liked listening to other deaf people’s work experiences;” “Really, I didn’t know that;” and “It’s important to communicate.” See assessment’s outcomes Students were asked to answer yes & no questions and true & false statements. See quizzes’ outcomes Students’ comprehension were quizzed to determine what they understood after viewing the videotape.
the Method • Preparation • Interview • Discussion • Home Step 1 Chosen for this unit Prepare & involve students to create questionnaires for Deaf or Hard of Hearing workers. Examples of questions written by students: “What is your position or job?” “How did you get your job?” “What are your skills?” “How long does it take for a deaf person to get a job?” “Was your training supervisor hearing or deaf?” “Is it difficult to work with hearing people?” “How did you improve your attitude at work?” “Do you have to wear nice clothes for work?” “What benefits do you have?” “How many sick days do you get?” “Do you get raises?” “Is it hard for hearing and deaf people to communicate with each other?” “If you miss work a lot- what would happen to you?” “You are successful when you start your job but later you start to show a bad attitude. How do you improve your attitude?” “Is it important to talk with people face to face- like good eye contacts?” “What are your work rules and laws?” “What kind of promotions does your job offer?” The Unit’s MissionThe Six Facets
the Method Preparation • Interview • Discussion • Home Step 2 Students or teachers to do interviews Be careful who you choose to interview. Screen and interview Deaf workers/professionals by eval- uating their character and use of language. When you have decided on your choices, set up individ- ual appointments with them. Discuss possible locations/backdrops to videotape the interviews (at home or work). Give the list of questions (created by students) for the workers to review before the interview. Set two hours aside for practice and doing the actual interview. IMPORTANT! Look for interpreters who would be willing to volunteer to voice for Deaf workers. It’s preferable that an interpreter is NOT to be seen on video while voicing the Interview. However each interview will be unique. Meet workers at appointed locations and videotape them. Try to avoid standing far away while video taping- it will be HARD to understand and read the signs. Workers can be interviewed by carrying a rapport with the interviewer or practice speaking beforehand and be videotaped solo. Workers are to introduce themselves, explain their jobs and feel free to choose from questionnaires created by students. Limit interviews between 5 to 15 minutes and offer opportunity for workers to view their own tapes for approval. Deaf workers will need to sign permission forms stating that the video tape can be used for educational purposes only. Examples of deaf workers/ professionals used for this unit.
the Method Preparation • Interview • Discussion Home Step 3 Set up classroom to view & discuss videotapes Work with teachers/staff in setting up TV and VCR. Invite all Deaf and hard of hearing students to view videotapes of one or two interviews at a time. Lively discussions are conducted with students after the viewings. Make sure interpreters are present to voice for hard of hearing students in the classroom if needed. Examples of questions for discussions after viewing the video tape : “What do you think of this Deaf worker?” “What did you learn?” “Did you agree with that?” “Do you think you need to save money for retirement?” “How are you supposed to dress for this job?” “What is ADA?” “Is graduating from high school important?” “Have you ever had a bad attitude like this deaf worker?” “How would you communicate with your boss?” “Is it okay to not call your boss if you are going to be late for work?” “Is it important to be on time for work?” “What kind of skills are needed for this job?” And many more…create your own! See Outcomes
Deaf & Hard ofHearing Workers/ Professionals Preparation Interview Discussion Home Examples of Deaf and hard of hearing workers/professionals interviewed and videotaped for this unit: -Be sure to interview both deaf and hard of hearing workers in order to meet the needs of all students in the classroom. A retired Deaf woman who worked for First Energy for 16 yrs. * (Discussed retirement/savings) A Deaf man who works as a landscape designer for 15 yrs. * (Discussed school/job requirements) A deaf man who works as busboy after being laid off from a job of 13 yrs. * (Discussed school & ADA) A Deaf woman who worked for Fifth-Third bank for 15 yrs. * (Discussed difficulties on job) A Deaf woman working as a teacher’s aide. Two yrs of experience. **(Discussed job duties) A retired Deaf woman who worked for Bayer Co. for 32 yrs. ** (Discuss job & taught ASL to workers) A Deaf factory worker. * (Discussed the importance of education) A hard of hearing professional with computer skills. * (Discussed computer work) Most deaf workers sign PSE (*). Few are ASL (**). Most are of oral background. Most did not have voice interpreting during the tapings due to lack of time or unavailability of interpreters. Interpreters will need to be present to voice interpret when viewing the tapes for hard of hearing students. Interview workers who have cochlear implants if possible. Finding role models in Northeastern OH
Finding Role Models Preparation Interview Discussion Home Northeast Ohio Deaf Group Homepage (NODGH) includes Deaf clubs, churches, social events http://users.zoominternet.net/~neodeaf/ Other resources for role models http://clercenter.gallaudet.edu/WorldAroundYou/interviews.html http://www.listen-up.org/htm/rolemodl.htm FREE loan captioned media programhttp://www.cfv.org Nickerson, Jane F. “Deaf People at Work- What do you want to be?” Reisler, Jim. “Voices of the Oral Deaf: Fourteen Role Models Speak Out.” Other role model ideas… Contact former Deaf & h/h high school students Meet Deaf or hard of hearing students through a student’s disability office or deaf education program of local colleges/universities CODA- Children of Deaf Adults • Deaf and hard of hearing workers or professionals • can be located at the following places: • Communication Services for the Deaf (CSD) at Cleveland Hearing and Speech Ctr- www.chsc.org Greenleaf Family Ctr (Akron)- www.greenleafctr.org Bureau of Vocational Rehabilitation, Akron and Cleve. Kent State University, Kent, firstname.lastname@example.org Center for Independent Living, Cleveland Ohio School for the Deaf Alumni Assn. email@example.com • Visit and talk with Deaf or hard of hearing • members of these organizations: N.E. Ohio Senior Citizens of the Deaf, Clev.- 216.851.5642 Society for the Deaf SHHH- Fairview Park and Canton- http://www.shhh.org The Association of Late-Deafened Adults- 216.226.0458 v/tty The Deaf & Deaf-Blind Committee on Human Rights- WeR4HumanRights@cs.com Deafness Advisory Committee- 440.277.4602 v/tty
Outcomes The Unit’s Mission The Six Facets The Method Home Facet 6: Self Knowledge Outcomes from video tape/discussion assessment: Ten students completed the true/false assessment (signed): 9 out of 10 indicated ‘false’-“Deaf people are never frustrated at work.” 9 out of 10 indicated ‘false’-“Deaf and hearing workers cannot get along.” 8 out of 10 indicated ‘true’-“We (deaf) show more nonverbal communication than verbal communication.” 8 out of 10 indicated ‘true’-“If you talk back at your boss, you can be fired.” 8 out of 10 indicated ‘false’-“If you are running late for work, you don’t need to call your boss.” 7 out of 10 indicated ‘false’-“It’s very easy to find jobs without a high school diploma.” 9 out of 10 indicated ‘false’-“Deaf people need to depend on hearing people all the time for help.” 7 out of 10 indicated ‘true’-“Deaf people can take care of themselves and be responsible adults like hearing people.” 6 out of 10 indicated ‘true’-“If you do not show respect to your teachers, it is possible that you will not show respect to your boss.” Nine students completed the yes/no assessment (signed): All nine students indicated that they liked watching the video tape of deaf workers. Four out of nine indicated they would like to watch more video tapes of other deaf workers. All nine students indicated that it was important to communicate well at work. Eight out of nine students indicated that it was important to know how many sick days when starting a new job. All nine students indicated that they would like to be promoted in their future jobs. All nine students indicated that getting a high school diploma was important. See Quizzes’ outcomes
Summer Employment The Six Facets The Method Home Research & Studies Are your students prepared? After the Unit’s completion and assessments, a local employment program pro- vided nine of the 30 Deaf and hard of hearing students part-time work opportunities at a local V.A. hospital during the summer of 2003. This enables students to apply what they’ve learned. See students’ comments on right. “It was a very good work experience.” “I tried to teach co-workers sign language.” “I would like to develop other work experiences other than filing.” “I would like to improve my filing speed and gain some computer experiences.” “I would like more warehouse/mailroom experiences; change my physical workout; socialize more; and strive to create a good personality with people.” “I desire to gain different kinds of experiences and socialize with workers more.” “I would like to develop professional ‘business-like’ manners and business skills. “I would also like to be more independent and responsible.” Two Deaf high school graduates visited the working students & offered the following advice: Locate questionnaires for employers regarding their deaf employees and for Deaf students regarding their hearing Employers in Lotts, V., Easterbrooks, S., Heller, K., and O’Rourke, C. (2001). Work Attitudes of Students Who Are Deaf and Their Potential Employers. “Go to school, get a job, graduate, and stay focused.” “Don’t play around. Don’t be late for work. Don’t call off work.” -A 2002 graduate employed at the InterContinential Hotel- -A 2001 graduate employed as a assistant manager at Wendy’s-
Are your students prepared for the world of work? The Six Facets The Method Home Research & Studies Evidence s u g g e s t s employment problems may stem from two factors- a lack o f preparation for thework role & an unrealistic positive assessment ofp e r s o n a l capabilities Capella, Roessler, and Hemmerla (2002) indicated in their research that youths with disabilities are not prepared for the world of work. These youths are unemployed or underemployed due to defici- encies in interpersonal skills such as inappropriate work habits and attitudes, and poor social communication skills. According to employers- employment survival skills involve the following: A) Safe work behavior and safety awareness B) Attendance and punctuality C) Dependability, reliability, and ability to work unsupervised Correct image of self as a worker: A) Understand what his/her strengths are so that they can Maximize the match between personal abilities and job demands B) Understand what their limitations are so that they can make changes in personal characteristics to enhance their employability. Capella, M., Roessler, R., Hemmerla, K. (2002), Work-related skills awareness in high school students with disabilities, Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling.
Research&Studies The Unit’s Mission The Six Facets The Method Home Part 1 It’simportant t op r o v i d e consistent &positive experiences . . . in thelives of Deaf and hard of hearing students who are considered high-risk. The one way to really touch their lives is- by locating Deaf or hard of hearing workers/professionals to come in and talk with them.Why does this work? For the same reason why black role models work for black persons. Young Deaf people can identify and learn from older and experienced deaf workers in explain- ng the importance of graduating and preparing for the world of work. Videotaping or invitingDeaf or hard of hearing workers or professionals to be role models or mentors can create ‘endure understanding’ in Deaf or hard of hearing students who are at high-risk from dropping out of school. By utilizing role models consistently through out the school year, the students’ chances of graduating from high school can increase when their self-esteem increases. According to a study by Bat-Chava (2001), she stated that deaf individuals with bi-cultural identities appear to have the most positive attitude towards deaf people. Students with bi-cultural identities would probably benefit from identifying and learning from Deaf and hard of hearing workers or professionals in the world of work. It’s interesting to note that Bat-Chava also stated that those with cultural-deaf identity feel neither positive or negative towards deaf people. Further research is needed to explore the effectiveness of role models in the lives of deaf and hard of hearing individuals from all walks of life in preparing for the world of work. Lotts, V., Easterbrooks, S., Heller, K., and O’Rourke, C. (2001). Work Attitudes of Students Who Are Deaf and Their Potential Employers. Bat-Chava (year). Diversity of Deaf Identities. American Annals of the Deaf, JADARA, Vol. 34, No. 2. See Research & Studies Part 2
Research&Studies The Unit’s Mission The Six Facets The Method Home Part 2 It's imperative that we correct students misinfor- mation about hearing people's attitudes or assumptions about individuals who are deaf as well as zero in on the beliefs and mindset held by em-ployers regarding deafness(Lotts, Easter- brooks, Heller, O'Rourke, 2001). Farrugia (1982) researched that deaf high school students had similar socioeconomic status aspirations as their hearing peers however they tend to aspire to lower levels of career and skill development. This is due to the fact that many deaf students shy away from certain vocational setting due to their perception that a hearing employer may not like or understand people who are deaf. Based on wrong assumptions- some deaf students may avoid certain vocational or job experiences and fall into the trap of unemployment and underachievement. Some students who lack communication skills or strategies also assume that employers may NOT see communication as a problem. However, resolving communication dilemmas between hearing employer-deaf employee can be resolved in a straight-forward manner. Despitethe passages of civil rightsand special education legislations, deaf individuals stillencounter p r o b l e m s with employ- ment See Research & Studies Part 1Part 3
Research&Studies The Unit’s Mission The Six Facets The Method Home Part 3 Studentswho KNOWwhat they want to do -believein themselves -or - havehigher self- esteemthan those students who don’t know what to do. When seeking out Deaf/hard of hearing workers or professionals, be sure to locate interested inter-ested, caring, reliable, and reputable individuals with similar or different backgrounds as the students. For example, local, reputable Deaf/hard of hearing automobile mechanics can be invited to speak with students interested in the same line of work. Tips which may impact Learning- High-risk students are en- couraged to discussed their skills and possible career or work goals on videotape at the start of the school year. Also, on their first tapings, students are encouraged to set attainable goals of how to develop their skills or gain work experiences during that school year. If a student has a difficult year, s/he may review the videotape as a way to positively remind him/her of the goals expressed. At the end of the year, students are to review their earlier tapings to see if their goals or plans have been followed through. Students may revised their goals if their original goals were not realistic or the right fit. Students are to videotape again at the end of the year to discuss their learning experiences/growths/ changes during the past year. More study is needed to determine student drop out at this north- eastern high school. This Unit was not put in effect until the spring of 2003 when three students had already dropped out. The unit would need to be implemented at the start of the school year to determine its effectiveness. See Research & Studies Part 1Part 3