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Physical Education & Health Education - New Agendas 80014. HEALTH RELATED FITNESS. Week Twelve - Programming HRF in the Primary School. THE FITNESS PARADOX.
HEALTH RELATED FITNESS Week Twelve - Programming HRF in the Primary School
THE FITNESS PARADOX • Physical activity was part of life for most people before the industrial revolution, but now the human body is becoming redundant as a source of energy in the workforce. • In the mid 1850’s human muscle accounted for approximately 33% of energy used in workshops, farms and factories. Today that figure in less than 1%. • Our lifestyle today involves a great number of spectator sports and activities - more automation, less time, more money…… • Physical activity undertaken by us in society today is for recreational purposes, not a necessity for survival.
SOME CHILLING STATISTICS • 50% of males and 66% of females engage in regular physical activity. • 10% of males and 5% of females actively exercise 3 times a week or more. • Latest figures suggest that over 60% of students are unfit. • Over 40% of males are considered obese. • The highest recreational activity for teenage girls in watching television. (On average 30 hours per week with some as high as 60 hours per week).
FITNESS BENEFITS • Increased cardio-respiratory fitness. • Lower blood pressure. • Increased muscle strength and muscle endurance. • Weight control. • Decreased Fatigue. • A more restful sleep. • Increased ability to cope with stress and anxiety. • Increased self-esteem.
FITNESS COMPONENTS • Health related components: • Cardio-respiratory endurance. • Flexibility. • Strength. • Muscular Endurance. • Skill Related Components: • Agility • Reaction Time • Balance • Co-ordination • Speed • Power
CARDIO-RESPIRATORY ENDURANCE • The capacity of the heart, blood vessels and lungs to function effectively during vigorous sustained activities such as jogging, swimming and cycling. • Requires a multitude a fit components to work. • Heart • Vascular system • Respiratory system • Blood • Muscles • Developed through aerobic and anaerobic exercise.
AEROBIC/ANAEROBIC • ANAEROBIC EXERCISE: • Irregular strenuous physical activity that relies on oxygen in the body for task completion. • AEROBIC EXERCISE: • Regular sustained physical activity that by its nature and duration requires an intake of oxygen for task completion.
FLEXIBILITY • The ability to use a muscle throughout its maximum range of motion. • Despite what your present body condition is, it is possible to move, bend stretch and twist at the major joints easily. (Some may argue with the choice of the term ‘easily’) • Flexibility is the basis for gracefully co-ordinated movements. Think of some activities where flexibility is of paramount importance. • Affected by age, sex, lack of use and can bring about improved athletic performance.
STRENGTH • Capacity of a muscle to exert maximum force against a resistance. • There is a difference between what we call ‘strength’ and what we call ‘muscular endurance’. • Strength is developed through activities such as weight training and is measured in a single repetition.
MUSCULAR ENDURANCE • Unlike strength, muscular endurance is the capacity of a muscle to exert a force repeatedly over a period of time, or the ability of a muscle to hold a fixed or static position for a specific period of time. • Sit-ups, chin-ups and push-ups are all examples of activities that require muscular endurance. • The irony of it all. To have muscular endurance you do need at least some strength. • Repetition forms the basis for development of muscular endurance.
THE FAB FOUR • Cardio-respiratory endurance • Flexibility • Strength • Muscular endurance. • Known as the “FAB FOUR” because they are essential for maintaining a good level of physical health. • Sound fitness programs will include each of these components to increase health.
SKILL-RELATEDFITNESS • Agility • Reaction time • Balance • Co-ordination • Speed • Power • Used in combination with health-related components improved performance can result. • Traditionally repetitive practice at specific activities improves these elements.
PROGRAMMING STUFF • The FITS principle. • Frequency of programmed activity. • How often do you do it? • Intensity of programmed activity. • How hard do you do it? • Time of programmed activity. • How long can you do it for? • Specificity of programmed activity. • How relevant is it to what you want to do?
PROGRAMMING STUFF • Frequency of programmed activity. • 3 sessions per week maintains fitness • 4 sessions + increase fitness • Intensity of programmed activity. • 60-80% of estimated maximum heart rate (Target Zone) • Time of programmed activity. • A minimum of 20 minutes needed with your target zone. • Specificity of programmed activity. • Golf, bowling, archery = little fitness development • Swimming,running, cycling= fitness development
CONDITIONING PRINCIPLES • Overload • Gradual increase in amount of exercise • Progression • Start slowly and increase over a period of time • Specificity • Specific kinds of activities to develop specific areas of fitness. (e.g. The weight-lifter and the ballerina)
FACTORS IN THE SEARCH FOR FITNESS • Cost • Availability • Time • Facilities • Environmental Conditions. • Health status. • External Influence.
FITNESS IN SCHOOLS • Levels of fitness need to be developed from the first year of schooling. • However there is no need for specific conditioning sessions for primary school children. • Whilst it is important to place emphasis on cardio-respiratory activity, the important features of sessions for these children are fun, enjoyment and skill. It is a sad statement the the skill development of children is often left unattended as teachers endeavor to ‘train’ students in fitness activities. • As part of general skill activities teachers can employ agility activities; muscular strength using body weight and endurance activities. • Your job is to teach children about fitness and assist them to make informed choices about activity. It is not to get them fit!!
FINAL THOUGHTS • Think about the types of fitness activities that you were exposed to in school? • Now think about the types of activities that are often used as punishment ? • Note the similarities. • Children will begin to associate unpleasant outcomes of certain activities if presented in a particular way. • Reflect on the fitness games that we are involved in at tutorials. It is only one small method of developing fitness under a covert cover, and hopefully a more pleasant environment.