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KIN 325 PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL FITNESS INTRODUCTION 1. Health Risk Factors 2. Physical Fitness: What is it? 3. Components of Physical Fitness 4. General Principles of Physical Training 5. Planning an Exercise Program Introduction 1. Health Risk Factors

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kin 325

KIN 325



1. Health Risk Factors

2. Physical Fitness: What is it?

3. Components of Physical Fitness

4. General Principles of Physical Training

5. Planning an Exercise Program


1. Health Risk Factors

100 years ago, the average life expectancy was only mid to late forties.

Risk Factors of circa 1900: infectious diseases such as pneumonia, tuberculosis and smallpox

Today’s risk factors are mainly related to one’s lifestyle

health risk factors of today
Health risk factors of today

- inactivity

- high fat diets

- smoking, alcohol, and drugs

- inadequate stress management

- environmental pollution

Lead to development of chronic diseases such as heart disease and cancer

leading causes of death 2005
Leading Causes of Death, 2005

Cause of Death % of total deaths

Heart Disease 28.0

Cancer 22.7

Stroke 6.5

Chronic lung disease 5.2

Accidents 4.3

Diabetes 3.0

Influenza & Pneumonia 2.7

Alzheimer’s Disease 2.6

Kidney Disease 1.7

Septicemia 1.4

(systemic blood infection)

National Center for Health Statistics, 2005

Most important lifestyle factor?


Direct correlation between fitness and mortality rates for all-cause deaths, cardiovascular disease deaths, and cancer deaths


Activity also improves the quality of life over the life span – increase in functional capacity

2 physical fitness what is it
2. Physical Fitness: What is it?

the ability of the body to adapt to the demands and stresses of physical effort.

The ability to perform moderate to vigorous levels of physical activity without undue fatigue (American College of Sports Medicine).

The ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without undue fatigue and with ample energy to enjoy leisure-time pursuits and to meet unforeseen emergencies (The President’s Council on Physical Fitness).

physical fitness
Physical Fitness

Achieved through activity

Lack of activity – Hypokinetic disease such as obesity and osteoporosis

*muscles atrophy and become weaker

*bones lose density

*joints stiffen and lose ROM

*cellular energy systems degenerate

Exercise: physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and purposeful in the sense that improvement or maintenance of physical fitness is an objective.

Physical activity: any bodily movement produced by the skeletal muscles that results in an increase in energy expenditure.

3 the components of physical fitness
3. The components of Physical Fitness

Skill-Related Fitness






Reaction Time

Health-Related Fitness

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Body Composition


a. flexibility

b. muscular strength

c. muscular endurance

skill related fitness components
Skill-Related Fitness Components

Agility- the ability to rapidly change the position of the entire body in space with speed and accuracy.

Balance- the maintenance of equilibrium while stationary or moving.

Coordination- ability to use the senses to perform motor tasks smoothly and accurately; that is, in a highly efficient manner.

skill related fitness components18
Speed- ability to perform a movement in a short period of time.

Power- the ability to apply force quickly.

Reaction time- time elapsed between stimulation and the first measured movement response.

Skill-Related Fitness Components
health related fitness components
Health-Related Fitness Components

Cardiorespiratory endurance- the ability to continue in strenuous tasks involving large muscle groups for extended periods of time.

Depends on a variety of factors:

Ability of the lungs to deliver oxygen to the bloodstream

Heart’s capacity to pump the blood

Ability of the nervous system and the blood vessels to regulate blood flow

Capability of metabolic machinery to use oxygen and metabolize fuels for energy

health related fitness components20
Health-Related Fitness Components

Body composition- refers to the relative amounts of lean body tissue (muscle, bone, and water) and fat in body.

Overweight vs obese

Overweight Obese Ideal

Men > 20% > 25% < 15%

Women > 30% > 33% <23%

health related fitness components21
Health-Related Fitness Components

Musculoskeletal fitness- made up of three components: flexibility, muscular strength, and muscular endurance.

Flexibility- functional capacity of the joints to move through a full range of motion.

Muscular strength- the amount of force a muscle can produce with a single maximal effort.

Muscular endurance- the ability to sustain a given level of muscle tension.

4 general principles of physical training

4. General Principles of Physical Training

Overall objective: to cause biological adaptations that will improve the functional capacity of a particular body system.

1. Overload principle

A body system must be exercised at a level above which it normally operates in order for the system to function more effectively. This can be accomplished as follows:

Increasing the frequency of exercise

Increasing the duration of exercise

Increasing the intensity of exercise

To ensure continued improvement, the degree of overload should keep pace with the adaptive physiological and performance changes that occur as a result of training- progressive overload.

2. Training Specificity Principle

Adaptations depend on the type of overload imposed.

Exercise that develops one aspect of fitness contributes little to other components of fitness.

Therefore, to develop a particular fitness component, exercises must be performed that are specifically designed for that component.

3. Individual Differences Principle

Genetic factors influence the training response. Some people respond more readily to a specific training workload than others

4. Reversibility Principle

Once a person reaches a certain fitness level, regular physical activity must be maintained to prevent de-conditioning, or loss of functional capacity.

If training load has to be reduced, fitness improvements are best maintained by cutting frequency and duration rather than intensity.

5 planning an exercise program
5. Planning an exercise program
  • Set general goals
  • Fit for what? Ultimate goal - wellness that lasts a lifetime.
  • Improve body comp, cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, sprinting speed, fitness for soccer
2. Choose the appropriate activity
  • Consider the training specificity principle

3. Assessment

  • Assess current fitness level. Helps to set realistic and specific goals.

4. Plan the training load

Set a target intensity, duration, and frequency for each activity – overload principle

Get in shape gradually!

general recommendations
General recommendations
  • Warm up before exercising, cool down afterwards
  • Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts
  • Find a suitable training partner
  • Keep a training log
  • Listen to your body, and get adequate rest