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Cultural Competency – The Evolution of Early, Integrated Education For Medical Students, Residents and Faculty at One Institution. Maria L. Soto-Greene, M.D. Vice President, Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, Inc. Senior Associate Dean for Education

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Cultural Competency – The Evolution of Early, Integrated Education For Medical Students, Residents and Faculty at One Institution

Maria L. Soto-Greene, M.D.

Vice President, Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools, Inc.

Senior Associate Dean for Education

Director, Hispanic Center of Excellence

New Jersey Medical School

Newark, New Jersey

overview
Overview

Developing, integrating, and evaluating a cultural competency curriculum for:

  • Medical students
  • Medical residents
  • Faculty
  • Hospital interpreters
overall goal
Overall Goal

Adapted from the Promoting, Reinforcing, and Improving

Medical Education (PRIME) project by the American

Medical Student Association (AMSA) and HRSA with

expectation that:

  • Students will learn about culture and diversity’s role in medicine
  • Students will learn the importance of being culturally competent
  • Students will develop cultural and linguistic competency through participation in a variety of clinical experiences while completing a community learning experience
comprehensive curriculum
Comprehensive Curriculum
  • 1st year
    • Art of Medicine Course
    • History & Physical Exam Course
    • Administration of the Health BELIEF Attitude Survey
  • 2nd year
    • Communications exercise during the Introduction to Clinical Medicine course
      • Teach students how to conduct a triadic interview
comprehensive curriculum cont d
Comprehensive Curriculum (cont’d)
  • 3rd year
    • Expansion of training into third year clerkships with concomitant faculty training.
  • 4th year
    • Graduation Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) that assesses our graduate’s cultural and linguistic competency skills.
    • Re-administering the Health BELIEF Attitude Survey.
the art of medicine begins with the communication between a physician and the patient
“The Art of Medicine begins with the communication between a physician and the patient.”
  • Introduced new components to the history
  • Trained H & P faculty on these additional components
  • Introduced the appropriate use of an interpreter
  • Integrated these components into the ambulatory preceptorships in the community
students views
Students’ Views
  • The Health BELIEF Attitude Survey is an instrument used to assess how important students consider obtaining a patients health care view points.
  • This survey was developed and piloted at UTHSC at San Antonio by their HCOE, a HSHPS member, and Society of Teachers of Family Medicine Foundation.
ethnic a framework for culturally competent clinical practice
ETHNIC: A Framework for Culturally Competent Clinical Practice

E: Explanation

What do you think may be the reason you have these symptoms?

What do friends, family, and others say about these symptoms?

Do you know anyone else who has had or who has this kind of problem?

Have you heard about/read/seen it on TV/radio/newspaper?

(If the patient cannot offer an explanation, ask what most concerns them about their problems).

Developed by: Steven J. Levin, M.D.

Robert C. Like, M.D., M.S., Jan E. Gottlieb, M.P.H.

Department of Family Medicine

UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

ethnic cont d
ETHNIC: Cont’d

T: Treatment What kinds of medicines, home remedies or other treatments have you tried for this illness?

Is there anything you eat, drink or do (or avoid) on a regular basis to stay healthy? Tell me about it.

What kind of treatment are you seeking from me?

H: Healers Have you sought any advice from alternative/folk healers, friends or other people (non-doctors) for help with your problems? Tell me about it.

Developed by: Steven J. Levin, M.D.

Robert C. Like, M.D., M.S., Jan E. Gottlieb, M.P.H.

Department of Family Medicine

UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

ethnic cont d10
ETHNIC: Cont’d

N: Negotiate Negotiate options that will be mutually acceptable to you and your patient and that do not contradict, but rather incorporate your patient’s beliefs.

I: Intervention Determine an intervention with your patient. May include incorporation of alternative treatments, spirituality, and healers as well as other cultural practices (e.g. food eaten or avoided in general and when sick).

C: Collaboration Collaborate with the patient, family members, other health care team members, healers and community resources.

Developed by: Steven J. Levin, M.D.

Robert C. Like, M.D., M.S., Jan E. Gottlieb, M.P.H.

Department of Family Medicine

UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School

introduction of culture
Introduction of Culture
  • Glossary of Cultural Terms
  • Case studies from the AMSA project
  • Cultural and Spiritual Beliefs
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)
definition of culture
Definition of Culture

We adopted, with some modification, the broader definition

of cultural and linguistic competency recommended by

HRSA in its publication: “Cultural Competence Works 2001.

Cultural & Linguistic is: “…a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes, policies and procedures that come together in a system, agency or among professionals which enable they system, agency, or those professionals to work effectively and efficiently in cross-cultural and diverse linguistic situations on a continuous basis.”

interpret
INTERPRET

I: Prior to session, introductions take place. Interpreter introduces her/himself to provider. Provider introduces interpreter to patient.

N: Interpreter tells provider if patient says she/he is a non-citizen or an illegal immigrant.

T: The provider and interpreter should develop trust between themselves

and with the patient.

E: To achieve effectiveness, provider talks directly to patient in the first person; speaks in small segment; and clarifies technical terms. Interpreter is linguistically competent; speaks simply and clearly in the first person; explains cultural and linguistic topics; interprets everything said without adding or deleting; stops provider and patient if they are speaking too long; and refrains from offering advice.

interpret cont d
INTERPRET (cont’d)

R: The provider has the lead role. When working with an untrained interpreter, the provider is also responsible for explaining the interpreter’s roles and duties as outlined on this card to the interpreter.

P: Proper positioning is crucial. Provider faces patient. Interpreter sits beside and slightly behind patient. Avoid triangular dynamics.

R: Useful resources include the following:

Diversity Rx http://www.DiversityRX.org

Bilingual Dictionaries http://www.ibdltd.com

MA Medical Interpreter Assoc. http://www.mmia.org

E: The provider and interpreter put ethics into practice. They exercise confidentiality and a non-judgmental attitude.

T: A culturally competent triadic interview involves an ample timeframe. Learn to work effectively and efficiently.

third year medical students
Third year medical students
  • Began by pilot testing a cross cultural curriculum with 40 third year medical students during their medicine clerkship.
  • Assessed level of competency at baseline and after the curriculum using 2 modalities.
results
Results
  • Students in the cross cultural curriculum had higher exam scores and higher levels of confidence and satisfaction. All 40 students had the same level of interest in cross cultural issues.
  • Goal: to develop an integrated third year medical student curriculum that emphasis sociocultural issues throughout their rotations.
graduation o bjective s tructured c linical e xamination osce
Graduation Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)
  • At the core of this examination is the doctor-patient communication.
  • OSCE’s are used to assess the core skills, knowledge and attitudes of tomorrow’s physicians including more recently in licensure.
  • Specifically, our OSCE will test a student’s ability to communicate using cross cultural principles.
cultural competency training medical residents
Cultural Competency Training: Medical Residents
  • Assess level of need and competency at baseline.
  • Assess effectiveness of curriculum with the goal of implementing a formal cultural competency residency training program.
  • A determinant of success is whether the medical resident trained receives increased patient satisfaction when working with diverse cultural groups.
medical interpreter training
Medical Interpreter Training
  • Pilot project funded by the State of NJ to train volunteer hospital medical interpreters.
  • 16 interpreters participated in a one day medical interpreting and cultural competency training program.
  • curriculum focused on attitudes, knowledge, and skills
medical interpreter training program results and outcomes
Medical Interpreter Training Program: Results and Outcomes
  • Trained interpreters received high patient and physician satisfaction scores in the clinical setting.
  • Trained interpreters found that physicians do not know how to use an interpreter appropriately.
  • An Interpreter Training Curriculum was submitted to the State of NJ.
  • University Hospital now funds a program to train all interpreters.
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Clinicians must “check their own pulse” and become aware of personal attitudes, beliefs, biases, and behaviors that may influence (consciously or unconsciously) the care of their patients.

every clinical encounter is cross cultural
Every clinical encounter is cross-cultural
  • No “one” way to treat a racial or ethnic group given the great “sociocultural” diversity
  • Need to have a “Framework” of interventions that can be individualized
  • A “one size fits all” health care system cannot meet the needs of an increasingly diverse American population
organizational and health care policies
Organizational and Health Care Policies
  • Develop a mission statement that articulates principles, rationale, and values for culturally and linguistically competent health care service delivery
  • Ensure consumer and community participation
organizational and health care policies cont d
Organizational and Health Care Policies (cont’d)
  • Implement processes that review policies and procedures to assess relevance of initiatives launched
  • Implement legislation that provides resources (i.e. funding from Titles VII & VIII, NIH, private sector, etc.) that supports ongoing professional development and in-service training for culturally and linguistically diverse communities
cultural competency training and education
Cultural Competency Training and Education
  • To succeed, we must have:
    • Research Agendas
    • Evaluation Tools
    • Uniformity at all levels - both state and federal
    • Legislation with appropriate levels of funding to ensure that there is the level of training that ensures equal access and care for all Americans.