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Multicultural Competency Development Fernando A. Ortiz, Ph.D. CHAPTER 1 THE MULTICULTURAL JOURNEY TO CULTURAL COMPETENCE. Emotional Roadblocks to the Path of Cultural Competence. Strong emotions such as:
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Fernando A. Ortiz, Ph.D.
Strong emotions such as:
anger, sadness, and defensiveness are displayed when discussing experiences of race, culture, gender, and other sociodemographic variables
Nowhere is diversification of society more evident than in the workplace where three major trends can be observed:
Overt Racism, Sexism, and Heterosexism
CovertRacism, Sexism, and Heterosexism
Commonplace verbal or behavioral indignities, whether intentional or unintentional, which communicate hostile, derogatory, or negative racial slights and insults.
Behavioral/verbal remarks or comments that convey rudeness, insensitivity and demean a person’s racial heritage or identity.
Explicit racial derogations characterized primarily by a violent verbal or nonverbal attack meant to hurt the intended victim through name-calling, avoidant behavior or purposeful discriminatory actions
Verbal comments or behaviors that exclude, negate, or nullify the psychological thoughts, feelings, or experiential reality of a person of color.
Racial assaults, insults and invalidations which are manifested on systemic and environmental levels.
The marginal person, coined by Stonequist (1937) refers to one’s ability to form a dual ethnic identification due to a bicultural membership
Refers to perception and use of personal and interpersonal space:
Refers to bodily movements (e.g. facial expression, posture, gestures, eye contact):
Refers to vocal cues other than words (i.e. loudness of voice, pauses, silences, etc.):
Counselors/therapists have a professional responsibility to become knowledgeable and conversant with the assumptions and practices of indigenous healing so that a “desensitization and normalization process” can occur.
By becoming knowledgeable and understanding of indigenous helping approaches, the therapist will avoid equating differences with deviance!
While reading books about nonwestern forms of healing and attending seminars and lectures on the topic is valuable and helpful, understanding culturally different perspectives must be supplemented by lived experience.
Even when we travel abroad, few of us actively place ourselves in situations which are unfamiliar because it evokes discomfort, anxiety and a feeling of differentness.
Spirituality is a belief in a higher power which allows us to make meaning of life and the universe. It may or may not be linked to a formal religion, but there is little doubt that it is a powerful force in the human condition.
Many groups accept the prevalence of spirituality in nearly all aspects of life; thus separating it from one’s existence is not possible.
1. Attitude and Beliefs toward Self.
2. Attitudes and Beliefs toward Members of the Same Minority.
3. Attitudes and Beliefs toward Members of Different Minorities.
4. Attitude and Beliefs toward Members of the Dominant Group.
Multicultural counseling and therapy must be about
1. Cultural Destructiveness: Programs that support oppression (e.g. Tuskeegee)
2. Cultural Incapacity:Not intentionally destructive but still believe in White superiority
3. Cultural Blindness: All people are the same and Western helping methods are applicable
4. Cultural Precompetence:Looked at “artifacts” seeing weaknesses in serving minorities
5. Cultural Competence:Diverse staff at all levels—higher stages of cultural identity awareness
6. Cultural Proficiency:Very rare—high levels of cultural competence—seek knowledge to develop better practices
All therapists and counselors need to:
Various issues plague African Americans:
American Indians have suffered greatly as a result of:
Three major affirmations:
As a mental health worker, it will be important for you to assess:
The following are three models of disability affecting the way the condition is perceived: