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Police Technology Chapter Two Computer Basics Learning Objectives Understand the basic hardware and software components of a Desk Top Personal Computer (PC). The difference between Operating Systems and Applications software .

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police technology chapter two

Police Technology Chapter Two

Computer Basics

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

learning objectives
Learning Objectives
  • Understand the basic hardware and software components of a Desk Top Personal Computer (PC).
  • The difference between Operating Systemsand Applications software.
  • The difference between and Flat File and Relational Database

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

binary number system
Binary Number System

A mathematical counting scheme

that has only two digits – zero

(0) and one (1) which are

combined to represent our ten-

digit counting scheme.

Today’s computers use this off/on scheme to represent the binary digits, commonly

referred to as bits, 1 and 0.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

binary number system4
Binary Number System

It is simple for computers to translate binary

digits into a sixteen digit-based code called

hexadecimal. This coding system is a

compromise between our abilities and the

computer that allows us to interface.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

ascii
ASCII

The standard computer code configuration

that works with computer bits is called the

American Standard Code for Information

Interchange (ASCII).

Binary digits

A byte is eight bits,

or a series of eight ones

and zeros.

Byte

ASCII

Words you can read!

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

interface means to interact
Interface Means to Interact
  • User interface is how we interact with the computer, e.g. the keyboard and mouse are user interface inputs and the monitor is the computer’s user interface output

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

your computer as a system
Your Computer as a System

A computer system can considered as

three broad categories of components:

  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Firmware

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

your computer as a system8
Your Computer as a System

The user is a human being.

The input devices are the

computer keyboard, mouse,

andmicrophone.

The output devices are the

monitor, speakers, printer,

and various storage media.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

hardware
Hardware

Input/output devices are

referred to as peripheral

devices. Think of a

peripheral device as any

device not inside the

computer case.

They communicate with the

main part of the computer

using ports.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

hardware10
Hardware

In addition to receiving information directly from

human users via input devices, computers can

receive information from other computers. This

is done via a network, e.g. the Internet.

Network information can come to the computers

through:

  • Hard lines(standard telephone line)
  • Wireless (via radio signals)

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

hardware11
Hardware

Computers have the

ability to store

information:

  • Floppy Disks
  • Compact Discs (CDs)
  • Digital Video Discs (DVDs)

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer
Inside your Computer

The systems board, or motherboard, is the brain of the computer. The motherboard contains a series of micro chips that are connected together by circuitry.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer13
Inside your Computer

Circuits, like wires or cables, transmit electrical signals containing binary data between the various microchips.

The microchips in the computer can detect the presence or absence of electronic impulses.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside the computer
Inside The Computer

The Motherboard contains three types

of memory chips:

  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • The Read-only Memory (ROM)
  • The Random Access Memory (RAM)

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer15
Inside your Computer

The CPU has three core sets of

instructions that it carries out:

  • Mathematical computations (addition, subtraction, division);
  • Moving data or information from one memory location to another; and,
  • Making decisions and moving to a different set of instructions based upon those decisions.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer16
Inside your Computer

Random Access Memory (RAM) chips contain information only when your computer is on. When you turn off the computer, the memory in the RAM disappears.

Also known as

Volatile storage!

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer17
Inside your Computer
  • Read Only Memory (ROM) Contains the basic set of instructions that are required to start the computer.
  • Memory was installed during the manufacturing process.
  • ROM (BIOS instructions) is a permanent part of the chip.

Also known as

Non- Volatile storage!

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer18
Inside your Computer
  • The Motherboard contains…..
    • A Complementary Metal Oxide Semi-conductor (CMOS)configuration chip.
    • A system clock.
    • Expansions slots.
    • RAM memory.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer19
Inside your Computer
  • The CMOS Chip:
    • Responsible for remembering what hardware is in your computer.
    • Necessary for your computer to initially organize itself. If you added a new drive, card, or peripheral device, your CMOS information would change.
    • Volatile (information can be lost) so it has its own battery with constant power

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer20
Inside your Computer
  • Random Access Memory (RAM) ………….
    • Contains information your computer is working with now (What is on the screen).
    • Has to be limited in the amount of information it can contain.
    • Once you are finished using the RAM and move on to another project, what was in RAM is dumped.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer21
Inside your Computer

Cache Memory contains memory your computer anticipates you might need, similar to the human brain. It makes assumptions about what information you might need based on certain programming.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer22
Inside your Computer
  • A BUS Contains the electrical pathways and directions for use of those pathways that the information uses while inside a computer.
  • The small metal tracings in the circuit board take the place of wires to conduct electricity.
  • The bus is these traces and the instructions for their use.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer23
Inside your Computer

CMOS Chips Continually hold the

information on the configuration of your

computer. When you turn on the computer,

the startup process is called a booting.

When a computer is booted from the power-

off condition, it is called a “hard boot.” If

you push the reset button, you are

performing a “soft boot.”

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

inside your computer24
Inside your Computer

The Random Access Memory (ROM) contains a set of permanent instructions known as the basic input/output system (BIOS). Sometimes referred to as the ROM BIOS or Flash BIOS.

ROM chips are a hybrid of both hardware and software. It is a physical component with embedded software. ROM chips are sometimes referred to as firmware.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

information on the motherboard except the rom chip is volatile
Information on the Motherboard, except the ROM chip, is volatile.

Inside Your Computer

Long term or secondary

storage are non-volatile:

  • Hard disks;
  • Zip disks;
  • Floppy disks; Cassette tapes;
  • CD-ROMs; and,
  • DVDs.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

software
Instructions that tell hardware what to do; or,

A set of instructions written in a language that the computer can understand.

Two broad classifications

of software:

Operating Systems (also called platform)

Applications

Software

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

operating systems
Operating Systems

The operating

system is the

computer’s

traffic cop.

  • Tells the computer what to do.
  • The computer software that controls and coordinates the interaction among the hardware elements and between the hardware and the application programs.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

operating systems28
Operating Systems

After your computer has booted and CMOS

hands your computer over to the operating

system the operating system has two

primary functions:

  • Managing the hardware and software.
  • It provides application program interface (API).

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

disc operating system
Disc Operating System

DOS is probably the most common operating system.

Users interface with a DOS in one of three ways:

  • A command driven interface;
  • A menu-driven interface; or,
  • An icon-driven interface.

Most police employees work with an icon-driven

interface that is also called a graphical user

interface (GUI).

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

applications
Applications

Applications software allows the user to work with information in the computer. Applications are specific programs that allow the user to do specific tasks such as word processing.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

databases
Databases

A collection of organized information

that is centrally located and designed

to meet the needs of users. There are

two classifications of databases:

  • Flat file
  • Relational Database

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

forced choice formats
Forced Choice Formats

Many state and local police

agencies use software that allows

them to configure data entries to

match their specific data

dictionary.

Through the use of forced-choice

formats, GUI software restricts

data entries to previously

determined attributes, properties

or characteristics.

Screen capture provided by Crimestar Corporation

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

useful terms
Useful Terms
  • Multi-media is the different forms of media being used by any particular application.
    • Multimedia applications can include graphics, animation, sound, and video elements
  • A scalable system can be adapted and expanded to meet increased needs.
  • Most legacy systems are proprietary.
    • The system manufacturer (either hardware, software, or both) will not reveal the systems specifications so that other firms may not duplicate the product.
    • Also known as a closed architecture.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

slide34

Police Technology

Discuss criminal justice issues

www.criminaljustice-online.com

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster