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Police Technology Chapter Sixteen. Hi-Tech Crime. Learning Objectives. The difference between computer crime , computer related crime and technology crime. Why Hi-Tech crime may be under-reported. How the Internet changed traditional crime.

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Police TechnologyChapter Sixteen

Hi-Tech Crime

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Learning Objectives

  • The difference between computer crime, computer related crime and technology crime.

  • Why Hi-Tech crime may be under-reported.

  • How the Internet changed traditional crime.

  • Explore system attack, theft of services and software piracy.

  • Explore the Independent Component Doctrine.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Hi Tech Crime

Technology has changed the nature of crime – to prevent, deter and arrest you must understand the nature of the crime.

Was the computer the target? Was the technology inside the computer the target? Did the computer facilitate the crime? Or, has the technology morphed the nature of a traditional crime?

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Crime

  • The computer is the object of the attack; however, the attack is not physical, it is virtual –

    • Virus

    • Hacking

    • Theft of services

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related Crime

  • These types of crimes occur when the offender uses a computer to:

    • Commit a traditional crime

      • The computer is used to commit the crime.

    • Stores evidence of a crime

      • The computer is used to facilitate the crime.

        • Software Piracy

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Technology Crime

  • A crime directed at a technology, other than a computer

    • Theft of services – cellular telephones, cable television

    • Theft of computer components

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Hi Tech Crime

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer CrimeViruses

  • A malicious software program which attempts to replicate itself and spread.

  • Most commonly spread by email attachment, file download or infected disc

  • Attaches to executable program

    • Sometimes to use host computer to infect others via email list.

    • Causes disruption, including complete failure

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Crime Viruses

  • Viruses can spread rapidly, in some instances a computer virus can circumnavigate the globe in under an hour – infecting millions of computers

Screen Capture – Panda Software

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer CrimeHacking, Cracking and Whacking

  • Hacking refers to the non-malicious virtual entry into a software program.

    • May still be illegal

    • A non-illegal aspect might be purchasing a computer game and hacking it to ease your play

  • Cracking refers to the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a software program, system or network.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer CrimeHacking, Cracking and Whacking

  • Whacking is the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a software program, system or network via wireless connection.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer CrimeVirtual Street Names

  • Coders – Semi-professional software engineers who write code and experiment in virtual zoos. Their codes are sometimes used by the cyber-punks.

  • Cyber-punks – anti-social, angry; they write and use code for malicious purposes.

  • Old Guard Hackers – Generally, no malicious intent. However, their software is often used by cyber-punks.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer CrimeVirtual Street Names

  • Cyber-terrorists – Professional criminals who sell their computer skills. Often used in corporate espionage.

  • Old-School Hackers – Belief that Internet is open source. No criminal intent.

  • Script kiddies – juvenile cyber-punks.

  • Phreaker – uses technology to steal telephone system capabilities

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related Crime

  • The Internet affords a wider net of victims.

  • The Internet affords greater anonymity

  • The Internet can connect offenders together

  • The Internet makes jurisdiction issues difficult.

  • The Internet is new to law enforcement.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related CrimeCrimes Against Children

  • Use of Internet Relay Chat (IRC) to contact children.

    • Arrange meetings.

    • Engage in sexual talk, exchange of images.

  • Use of the Internet to exchange ideas on committing crimes against children.

  • Use of the Internet to exchange images of children.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related CrimeNew Information

  • Steganography – from the greek “steganos” meaning hidden and “graphy” meaning writing.

  • The process of hiding messages or images inside of the coding of images.

    • It is considered the newest challenge to law enforcement’s prosecution of pedophiles.

    • It may have been used by international terrorist to transmit messages to remote cells.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related CrimeFraud

  • The “box of rocks” becomes auction fraud.

    • On the street – offender uses a sealed package to entice victim. On the Internet – photographs and descriptions are used.

  • The Pigeon Drop becomes the Nigerian 419 scam.

    • On the street found money entices the victim. On the Internet – email is used to describe inheritances, overages, etc.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related CrimeFraud

  • In most fraud were the victim is an active participant the street and the Internet share a common theme – The victim’s thought they were getting something for nothing!

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related CrimeSoftware Piracy

  • A very broad category that involves the theft of any intellectual property using computer, primarily the internet.

    • Illegal music downloads.

    • Copy Right infringement

    • Trademark infringement

    • Illegal downloads of music.

    • Copying any work, including software, music, written work and providing it to a third person.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related CrimeFraud

  • Credit card fraud and theft

    • Email used to “Phish.” An email looks like it comes from a legitimate source. Asks for personal information which is then to steal the victim’s identity or using the victim’s credit.

    • Personal information is hacked from a legitimate source

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Computer Related CrimeFraud

  • Pump and Dump

    • Emails and websites used to drive up or down the price of an equity. The offender then sells/buys accordingly

  • Touting

    • Employee of legitimate publication publishes false or exaggerated news

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Technology Crime

  • Theft of components.

    • Shoplifting

    • Burglary

    • Hijacking

  • Theft of cellular telephone services.

  • Theft of telephone service

  • Theft of cable television

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Legal Aspects of Computer Crime

  • Approximately half of the states modeled their computer crime related statutes after the 1977 and 1979 versions of the Federal Computer Systems Protection Act.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Independent Component Doctrine

  • The Search and Seizure of computer equipment is protected by the Fourth Amendment.

  • Generally, a desk top computer consists of a computer, monitor, printer and other peripheral devices.

  • Investigators should consider listing each component separately on the search warrant

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Jurisdiction

  • One of the most difficult issues.

    • Greatly benefits the offender.

    • Offender can live in one state (or country) and victim in another.

    • Different laws.

    • Poor interagency cooperation

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Under-Reported

  • Federal Bureau of Investigation recently updated the Uniform Crime Reporting to include certain technology related crimes.

  • Victims don’t know they are victims

  • Companies stand to loose customer confidence if breach is reported.

  • Law enforcement is often weak in its response

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Task Forces

  • Combine investigative and computer expertise.

  • Share costs.

  • Help solve jurisdictional problems.

  • Help the exchange of information and trend identification

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Protection - Theft

  • The recording of serial numbers and periodic audits can detect theft.

  • Some companies have installed software that if a laptop is stolen, it will report its location when it connects to the Internet

Screen capture provided by Absolute Software Corp

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Protection

  • Software and hardware is being used to detect intrusions in real-time.

  • Software and hardware is used to prevent SPAM and email attachments that might contain viruses.

  • Education programs reduce hapless victimization

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Police Technology

Explore Police Books written by

law enforcement officials at

www.police-writers.com

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster