period 1 technological and environmental transformations to 600 b c e n.
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Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations to 600 B.C.E

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Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations to 600 B.C.E. Early African Societies. Early Agricultural Society in Africa. Egypt and Nubia formed complex societies based on agricultural and domestication of animals. Formed somewhat simultaneously.

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early agricultural society in africa
Early Agricultural Society in Africa
  • Egypt and Nubia formed complex societies based on agricultural and domestication of animals.
  • Formed somewhat simultaneously.
  • Egypt – Trade with eastern Mediterranean and southwest Asian peoples.
  • Nubia – Linked Egypt with the rest of sub-Saharan Africa.
climatic change and the development of agriculture in africa
Climatic Change and the Development of Agriculture in Africa
  • 10,000 B.C.E. – Africa mostly a grassy steppe land with numerous lakes, rivers, and streams… Much different than today.
  • 9000 B.C.E. – 5000 B.C.E. – Sudanic people organized small-scale states based on agriculture and animals
    • Had small monarchies
  • 5000 B.C.E. – Climate change turns Sahara to a desert.
    • People migrate from Sudan to the Nile River Valley.
egypt and nubia gifts of the nile
Egypt and Nubia: “Gifts of the Nile”
  • Egypt – Area along the Nile from south edge of the Mediterranean Sea to Aswan.
    • Extremely fertile because of Nile floods.
    • Drew many people and led to complex society based on agriculture.
  • Nubia – Area along the Nile south of Egypt.
    • Not as fertile but still good for agriculture
  • Both experienced big population growth.
egypt and nubia
Egypt and Nubia
  • Both restructured societies to ensure organization and order due to population growth.
  • Collaborated with one another to build irrigation systems and trade.
  • 4000 B.C.E. – Neither was unified, but had many rulers.
unification of egypt
Unification of Egypt
  • Menes – Man who unified Egypt around 3100 B.C.E.
    • Memphis became his capital city and eventually the cultural and political center of Egypt.
    • Menes’ successors eventually became pharaohs.
      • Pharaohs – Egyptian rulers who claimed to be gods.
      • P. 64 image.
      • Pharaohs ruled from 3100 B.C.E. – 2160 B.C.E. – Built pyramids as tombs during this time!
kingdom of kush
Kingdom of Kush
  • Frequent tension and violence between Egypt and Nubia from 3100 B.C.E. to 2160 B.C.E.
  • Strongest kingdom in Nubia was kingdom of Kush between 3000-2400 B.C.E.
  • Still traded with one another and interacted frequently.
turmoil and empire
Turmoil and Empire
  • Between 2160-2040 B.C.E. Pharaohs fell from power, but regained in from 2040-1640 B.C.E.
    • Happened because of smaller states building agricultural power.
    • Hyksos (horse riding nomads from Southwest Asia) eventually used chariots and bronze weapons to overthrow Pharaohs and capture Memphis (1674 B.C.E.)
    • People from upper Egypt eventually recaptured Memphis (1550 B.C.E.)
the new kingdom
The New Kingdom
  • 1550 – 1070 B.C.E.
  • New Pharaohs led a series of campaigns throughout Africa to establish their dominance.
  • By 760 B.C.E. for attackers had over Egypt, however.
emergence of cities and stratified societies
Emergence of Cities and Stratified Societies
  • Key Cities
  • Thebes
    • Political Center
  • Heliopolis
    • “City of the Sun” (Sacred)
  • Memphis
    • Egyptian Capital
  • Kush
    • Nubian Capital
emergence of cities and stratified societies1
Emergence of Cities and Stratified Societies
  • Patriarchal Society – Men ruled.
  • Social Classes
    • Pharaohs
    • Military Leaders
    • Tax Collectors
    • Administrators
    • Peasants
    • Slaves
    • (Not based on birth (except pharaoh) as it was in Mesopotamia
economic specialization and trade
Economic Specialization and Trade
  • Bronze Metallurgy - Egypt
  • Iron Metallurgy - Nubia
  • Transportation – Use of the Nile
  • Trade Networks – Mediterranean and Sub-Saharan Africa
early writing in the nile valley
Early Writing in the Nile Valley
  • Hieroglyphic Writing – Pictures and Symbols
    • Egypt
  • Meroitic Writing – Similar to Hieroglyphics
    • Nubia
    • Both led to formal education in both places.
the development of organized religious traditions
The Development of Organized Religious Traditions
  • Gods typically associated with the sun
  • Mummification – Process practiced by Egyptian elites to preserve the dead for the afterlife.
  • Nubian beliefs similar, but slightly different.
bantu migrations
Bantu Migrations
  • Bantu – People living in sub-Saharan Africa speaking the Bantu language.
  • Lived along river banks where they could farm and raise animals.
  • Clan-based villages headed by chiefs.
  • From 3000 B.C.E. – 1000 B.C.E migrated south until they occupied most of Africa south of the equator.
    • Used canoes to navigate rivers and move quickly.
impact of bantu migration
Impact of Bantu Migration
  • Spread agricultural and religious practices throughout sub-Saharan Africa.