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Period 1:Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c . 600 B.C.E. 2013-2014

Period 1:Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c . 600 B.C.E. 2013-2014. Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth . Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies

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Period 1:Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c . 600 B.C.E. 2013-2014

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  1. Period 1:Technological and Environmental Transformations, to c. 600 B.C.E. 2013-2014 Key Concept 1.1 Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth. Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies Key Concept 1.3 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies.

  2. Key Concept 1.1. Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth The term Big Geography draws attention to the global nature of world history. Throughout the P__________ period, humans migrated from A________ to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas. Early humans were mobile and creative in adapting to different geographical settings from sa_________to d________ to Ice Age t_______. By making an analogy with modern hunter/forager societies, anthropologists infer that these bands were relatively egalitarian. Humans also developed varied and sophisticated technologies.

  3. Prints Show a Modern Foot in Pre-humans Footprints uncovered in Kenya show that as early as 1.5 million years ago an ancestral species, almost certainly Homo erectus, had already evolved the feet and walking gait of modern humans.

  4. ______________ ______________ ______________

  5. From the Acorn . . . Major Developments Archeological evidence indicates that during the ___________era, hunting-f__________bandsof humans gradually migrated from their origin in __________Africa to Eurasia, Australia, and the Americas, adapting their technology and cultures to new climate regions. A. Humans used _______in new ways: to aid hunting and foraging, to protect against predators, and to adapt to cold environments. B. Humans developed a wider range of _________specially adapted to different environments from tropics to tundra. C. Economic structures focused on small ki_________ groups of hunting/foraging bands that could make what they needed to survive. However, not all groups were self-s____________; they exchanged people, ideas, and goods.

  6. Characteristics of HG G_________ division of labor N__________ or semi-nomadic E__________ _______ population size (“bands”) K________ groups C____________ food sharing

  7. What is the date for the Iron Age beginning?

  8. Key Concept 1.2. The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies In what ways did people interact with and impact their environment? Agriculturalists also had a massive impact on the environment through intensive cultivation of selected ________to the exclusion of others, through the construction of irrigation systems, and through the use of domesticated animals for food and for labor. What did agriculture do to gender and social relations? Populations _________; family groups gave way to v_________ life and, later, to urban life with all its complexity. P_________ and forced labor systems developed giving elite men concentrated power over most of the other people in their societies. What is Domestication?

  9. Environment as historical actor . . . . The basic thesis of Guns, Germs, and Steel "History followed different courses for different peoples because of differences among people's environments, not because of biological differences among peoples themselves." — page 24

  10. Environment as Historical Actor: the Guns, Germs and Steel Argument Although agriculture arose in several parts of the world, Eurasia gained an early advantage due to the availability of suitable plant and animal species for domestication. In particular, the M______ _____had by far the best collection of plants and animals suitable for domestication – Plants: barley, two varieties of w______ . . . flax for textiles; Animals: goats, sheep and cattle provided meat, leather, glue (by boiling the hooves and bones) and, in the case of sheep, wool. As early Middle Eastern civilizations began to trade, they found additional useful animals in adjacent territories, most notably horses and donkeys for use in transport .

  11. In contrast, Native American farmers had to struggle to develop m______ as a useful food from its probable wild ancestor, teosinte.Eurasia as a whole domesticated 13 species of large animals (over 100lb / 44 kg); South America just one (counting the _______ and alpaca as breeds within the same species); the rest of the world none at all.

  12. Eurasia's large landmass and long east-west distance increased these advantages. Its _______ ______provided it with more plant and animal species suitable for domestication and allowed its people to exchange both innovations and diseases. Its East-West orientation allowed breeds domesticated in one part of the continent to be used elsewhere through similarities in climate and the cycle of seasons. In contrast, Australia suffered from a lack of useful animals due to extinction, probably by human hunting, shortly after the end of the Pleistocene; the Americas had difficulty adapting crops domesticated at one l_______ for use at other latitudes (and, in North America, adapting crops from one side of the Rocky Mountains to the other); and Africa was fragmented by its extreme variations in climate from North to South: plants and animals that flourished in one area never reached other areas where they could have flourished, because they could not survive the intervening environment

  13. P__________ emerged in parts of Africa and Eurasia. Pastoral peoples ___________animals and _______their herds around grazing ranges. Like agriculturalists, pastoralists tended to be more socially st____________than were hunter-foragers. Because pastoralists were mobile, they rarely accumulated large amounts of material _________, which would have been a hindrance when changing grazing areas. Pastoralists’ mobility allowed them to become an important c________ for technological change as they interacted with settled populations. Main geographic locations: S_______, deserts, m_______ ranges

  14. Key Concept 1.3 Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons (such as compound bows or iron weapons) and modes of transportation (such as chariots or horseback riding) that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations. The often called the third revolutionary step in equipment (after chariot and saddle) A rider supported by ______was less likely to fall off while fighting, and could deliver a blow with a weapon that more fully employed the weight and momentum of horse and rider. Among other advantages, stirrups provided greater balance and support.

  15. 1.2.I. Beginning about _________years ago, the N_________Revolutionled to the development of new and more c__________ economic and social systems. Possibly as a response to c_________change, permanent agricultural villages emerged first in the lands of the eastern M______________ . Agriculture emerged at different times in Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley and Sub-Saharan Africa, the Indus River Valley, the Yellow River or Huang He Valley, Papua New Guinea, Mesoamerica, and the Andes Pastoralism developed at various sites in the g_______landsof Afro-Eurasia. Different crops or animals were d___________inthe various core regions, depending on available local flora and fauna. Agricultural communities had to work cooperatively to clear land and create the water control systems needed for crop production. These agricultural practices drastically impacted environmental diversity. P__________ also affected the environment by grazing large numbers of animals on fragile grasslands, leading to erosion when overgrazed.

  16. The “Cradle”

  17. goat wheat Rice and millet Maize Taro and bananas turkey Llama cotton Potato MAP: Geographical areas for first agriculture and domestication of animals

  18. Was Papua New Guinea an Early Agriculture Pioneer? By John Roach for National Geographic News June 23, 2003 Once considered a "Neolithic backwater" by archaeologists, Papua New Guinea is emerging as one of the handful of places on Earth where agricultural practices developed independently from other cultures. . . . . "People were definitely exploiting plants, including taro, at Kuk Swamp approximately 10,000 calendar years before present," said Denham. "There is then-evidence of b__________cultivationfrom 6,950 to 6,440 calendar years before present." Taro (Colcasiaesculenta) is a tuber with edible leaves and starchy roots. It remains a staple in the Papua New Guinean diet today. Prior to this discovery, many scientists regarded Papua New Guineans as passive recipients of domesticated plants and animals from Southeast Asia. But the dates for the rise of agriculture documented by Denham and colleagues predate the earliest known Southeast Asian influence by about 3000 years.

  19. 1.2.II. Agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies. Pastoralism and agriculture led to more r________ and abundant food supplies, which increased the _________ S_________ of food and other goods led to sp__________of labor, including new classes of artisans and warriors, and the development of elites. C. Technological innovations led to improvements in agricultural production, trade, and transportation: • Pottery (Earliest industry to emerge, perhaps 10,000 -7000 BCE) • Plows • Woven textiles (Hard to date since they decay over time; fragments as early as 6000 BCE found) • Metallurgy (C_______ ________ ______) • Wheels and wheeled vehicles (3500 BCE – Sumerians had wheeled carts by 3000BCE) D. In both pastoralist and agrarian societies, elite groups accumulated wealth, creating more hi__________ social structures and promoting p_____________formsof social organization.

  20. Key Concept 1.3: the next step The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies From about ________years ago, urban societies developed, laying the foundations for the first ______________.The term civilization is normally used to designate large societies with cities and powerful states. While there were many differences between civilizations, they also shared important features. They all produced agricultural s_________ that permitted significant specialization of labor. All civilizations contained c_______ and generated complex institutions, such as political b___________, including a_______ and r____________ hierarchies. They also featured clearly _____________social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships. Economic exchanges intensified within and between civilizations, as well as with nomadic p_____________.

  21. As populations grew, competition for sur________ resources, especially food, led to greater social st____________, sp________________ of labor, increased tr______, more complex systems of government and r___________n, and the development of r____________ keeping. As civilizations expanded, they had to balance their need for more resources with environmental constraints such as the danger of undermining s______fertility. Finally, the accumulation of wealth in settled communities spurred __________between communities and/or with pastoralists; this violence drove the development of new technologies of war and urban defense.

  22. Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished. NOTE: Students should be able to identify the location of all of the following. • Mesopotamia in the Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys • Egypt in the Nile River Valley • Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa in the Indus River Valley • Shang in the Yellow River or Huang He Valley • Olmecs in Mesoamerica • Chavin in Andean South America

  23. Can you id them?

  24. Since your copy is in black and white, try to id where the places are and then look at this

  25. II. The first states emerged within core civilizations A. ___________were powerful new systems of rule that mobilized surplus labor and resources over large areas. Early states were often led by a ruler whose source of power was believed to be d__________or had divine support, and/or who was supported by the mi__________ B. As states grew and competed for land and resources, the more favorably situated had greater access to resources—including the Hittites’ access to ________, produced more surplus food and experienced growing populations. These states were able to undertake territorial expansion and conquer surrounding states. C. Early regions of state expansion or empire building were M___________, Babylonia, and the N_________Valley. D. Pastoralists were often the developers and disseminators of new weapons (such as compound ________or iron weapons) and modes of transportation (such as chariots or _________ riding) that transformed warfare in agrarian civilizations.

  26. Bas relief sculpture of __________ chariot

  27. III. Culture played a significant in role in unifying states through law, language, literature, religion, myths and monumental art. A. Early civilizations developed monumental architecture and urban planning. (such as z__________, p________, temples, defensive walls, streets and roads or s__________ and water systems) B. Elites, both political and religious, promoted ______and artisanship. (such as sculpture, painting, wall decorations or elaborate wea_________) C. Systems of record keeping (such as c_________, h___________, pictographs, al__________ or qu_______ arose independently in all early civilizations and subsequently were diffused. D. States developed legal codes, including the Code of ___________, that reflected existing hi_____________ and facilitated the rule of governments over people.

  28. ACHIEVEMENTS OF ANCIENT M__________________ According to the acorn, cuneiform developed as a system of r__________ keeping

  29. Mesopotamia. . . . S__________ are first

  30. Lydian coins Hebrews: _______heism Babylonia: Code of ________

  31. Ancient Egypt Hatshepsut

  32. The Gift of the __________

  33. A wheel with spokes first appeared on Egyptian chariots around 2000 BC

  34. Social and gender hierarchies intensified as states expanded and cities multiplied. Detail of H__________, Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, c. 1473-1458 BCE She is depicted in the clothing of a male king though with a feminine form

  35. Which social strata encouraged the development of art in ancient civilizations? ________, both political and religious, promoted arts and artisanship. (such as sculpture, painting, wall decorations or elaborate weaving)

  36. Shang Dynasty

  37. NW India

  38. Indus Civilization Granary/Palace? at Harappa

  39. Ruins of the sewer system (showing some clay pipes and a well) Mo______D______s"chief glory" was a complex system of drains that ran throughout the city. According to one scholar, "only the Romans, more than two thousand years later, had a comparable drainage system." Clay pipes carried dirty, used water from buildings on the citadel and homes in the lower city to the main sewer system that ran along the city streets. The water and other sewage was emptied into the ___________River.

  40. _________ Olmec is a syllabic writing system used in the Olmec heartland from 900 BC- AD 450. This is the earliest text written in America, helps us to understand the culture religion and politics of the Olmec

  41. The ___________ were a civilization that developed in the northern __________ highlands of Peru from 900 BC to 200 BC. Ancestors of the _______ ; cultivators of the _______ The site of Chavín de Huántar

  42. III. Culture played a significant in role in unifying states through law, language, literature, religion, myths and monumental art. E. New religious beliefs developed in this period continued to have strong influences in later periods, including the V_____ religion, Hebrew m__________and Z__________________ Oh say. . . . Are you thinking continuity???? The founding father

  43. Vedic Religions • Brought to India by A_________ • first Vedas, collections of poems, hymns, songs, and prayers all transmitted orally • 1500 to 500 BVCE considered the V_______ age “_______” means wisdom or knowledge. • Aryans used Vedas to install the ________System – Social hierarchy based on ethnicity and occupation Aryans on top; Dravidians at bottom Map of northern India in the late Vedic period. The location of Vedic schools is labeled in green

  44. Vedic Religion • Fusion of Aryan traditions and Dravidian beliefs. • Rig Veda: important concepts such as castes and role of chief deity: Idra • Boisterous and sometimes violent god who wields thunderbolts and led the Aryans into battle against their enemies. • Many gods; use of rituals and animal sacrifice • Up_________ (sitting in front of) dialogues that discussed and explained the Vedas • __________ = Universal Soul - Goal is to break cycle of death and rebirth and enter a permanent union with _________ – “Moksha” • Evolves into H____________ A Vedic ritual still being performed today

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