By Rachael Ladele, Taylor Mitchell, Brian Wolfe, Copeland Hanshaw, MacKenzie Cleary, and Corinne Barber. Period 2: 600 B.C.E- 600 C.E. Geographical Snapshots. Geographical Snapshots. Rome
S:Social orders were established in Rome. The Patricians were the wealthier of the two. The Patricians were upper class while the Plebians were considered low class. The Senate was made up of Patricians while the Assembly was made up generally of Plebians.
P: “Innocent until proven guilty” originated in the Roman Judicial system. On court issues, not everyone had to vote. Instead, they elected representatives to make the decision.Geographical Snapshots
R: After the reign of Augustus Caeser, Christianity began to develop within the Roman Empire. The Roman powers used to see Christianity as a threat because they had set rules and expectations for their people and did not like them getting new ideas and feeling equal to higher powers.
I: The PaxRomana was “Roman Peace” and that is when they didn’t focus so much on military power but put more interest in arts, science, and math. Since they weren’t spending so much on the military, they had more money to invest in intellectual Rome.Geographical Snapshots
T: Romans made a large contribution to the technology in the world during the 2nd period. They introduced structures like the aqueduct that carried water from higher elevation to lower. This made it easier to get water to civilizations and also helped agriculture.
E: As the Roman empire declined economically, small landowners were frequently forced to sell their land to the owners of large estates. The economic self-sufficiency of the estates discouraged trade among the various parts of the empire. The decline in trade eventually produced a decline in urban population.Geographical Snapshots
S: The emporer was the highest authority in the Han society and government. Even still, the emporer was often ruled over by the empress or one of her male relatives. The rank below emporer were the kings. Below that is the nobles and then slaves.
P: After 92 CE, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various clans of the empresses and empress, eventually leading to the Han’s downfall.Geographical Snapshots
R: Daoism gained a new popularity during the 2nd period. In 184, the Yellow Turbans, a Daoist revolutionary movement, promised a new age of prosperity and security. Buddhism was also spread as Chinese cultural unity was dissolving.
I: The imperial examination was an examination system in Imperial China designed to select the best administrative officials for the states’ bureaucracy. This system had a large influence on both society and culture in Han China.Geographical Snapshots
T: The Han Dynasty invented the ban liang coin type. In the beginning of the Han, EmporerGaozu closed the government mint in favor of private minting of coins. Later his widow Grand Empress Lu Zhi abolished private minting giving rise to the ban liang coin type.
E: The invention of coins for currency in the early 6th century BCE was a significent development for the economy because it made trade easier and also made it easier to value trade items based on the value of the currency. Coins were generally made of silver, gold, or bronze. The invention of coins stimulated trade and increased the total wealth of the society.Geographical Snapshots
-Example: Rock and Pillar Edicts
- After Ashoka’s death in 232 B.C.E, the empire declined due to economic problems and pressure from attacks in the northeast.Change Over Time
-Hinduism also brought back the caste system which lowered women’s rights.
- The Gupta Dynasty fell because they were under pressure from the White Huns in 550 C.E.Change Over Time
- Hinduism and Buddhism: As the MauryanEmpire fell, Buddhism became less popular, while Hinduism rose to its amount of followers in the Gupta Empire.
Gupta- smaller, decentralized, and had Hinduism as their main religion.
- Active Trade: The Indian Ocean Trade was very popular in this time period. It sent spices, tropical fruits, pearls, etc. to Southeast Asia, East Africa, and the Middle East. The monsoon winds controlled the trade routes.Change Over Time
Compare Greece and Rome
status of women
slaves = important part of society
only adult males in politics
Golden age v. Pax Romana
Emphasis on unifying laws
Colosseum = political (and social) display of power
Aqueducts and roads
Not agriculturally advanced because of mountains
Dependent of rainfall