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Optical Multiplexing . optical telecommunication networks. Outline. Introduction Multiplexing Optical Multiplexing Components of Optical Mux Application Advantages Shortcomings/Future Work Conclusion References. Introduction.

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optical multiplexing

Optical Multiplexing

optical telecommunication networks

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Multiplexing
  • Optical Multiplexing
  • Components of Optical Mux
  • Application
  • Advantages
  • Shortcomings/Future Work
  • Conclusion
  • References
introduction
Introduction
  • Optical transmission uses pulses of light to transmit information from one place to another through an optical fiber.
  • The light is converted to electromagnetic carrier wave, which is modulated to carry information as the light propagates from one end to another.
  • The development of optical fiber has revolutionized the telecommunications industry.
  • Optical fiber was first developed in the 1970s as a transmission medium.
  • It has replaced other transmission media such as copper wire since inception, and it’s mainly used to wire core networks.
  • Today, optical fiber has been used to develop new high speed communication systems that transmit information as light pulses, examples are multiplexers.
multiplexing
Multiplexing
  • Multiplexing
    • What are Multiplexers?
      • Multiplexers are hardware components that combine multiple analog or digital input signals into a single line of transmission.
      • And at the receiver’s end, the multiplexers are known as de-multiplexers – performing reverse function of multiplexers.
    • Multiplexing is therefore the process of combining two or more input signals into a single transmission.
    • At receiver’s end, the combined signals are separated into distinct separate signal.
    • Multiplexing enhances efficiency use of bandwidth.
multiplexing example
Multiplexing Example
  • MATLAB simulation example:
    • Sampled in time:
      • Quantization
      • Digitization
multiplexing example1
Multiplexing Example
  • Multiplexed Signals
    • Separation of signals
    • Using time slots.
optical multiplexing1

Laser 1

Laser 2

Multiplexer

Optical Fiber

De-multiplexer

Laser 3

Laser 4

Regenerator + Receiver

Optical Multiplexing
  • Optical multiplexer and de-multiplexer are required to multiplex and de-multiplex various wavelengths onto a single fiber link.
  • Each specific I/O will be used for a single wavelength.
  • One optical filter system can act as both multiplexer and de-multiplexer
optical multiplexing2
Optical Multiplexing
  • Optical multiplexer and de-multiplexer are basically passive optical filter systems, which are arranged to process specific wavelengths in and out of the transport system (usually optical fiber).
  • Process of filtering the wavelengths can be performed using:
    • Prisms
    • Thin film filter
    • Dichroic filters or interference filters
  • The filtering materials are used to selectively reflect a single wavelength of light but pass all others transparently.
  • Each filter is tuned for a specific wavelength
components of optical multiplexer
Components of Optical Multiplexer
  • Combiner
  • Tap Coupler
    • ADD/DROP
  • Filters
    • Prisms
    • Thin film
    • Dichroic
  • Splitter
  • Optical fiber
optical multiplexing techniques
Optical Multiplexing Techniques
  • There are different techniques in multiplexing light signals onto a single optical fiber link.
  • Optical Multiplexing Techniques
    • Optical Time Division Multiplexing (OTDM)
      • Separating wavelengths in time
    • Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)
      • Each channel is assigned a unique carrier frequency
      • Channel spacing of about 50GHz
    • Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM)
    • Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing
      • Uses a much narrower channel spacing, therefore, many more wavelengths are supported.
    • Code Division Multiplexing
      • Also used in microwave transmission.
      • Spectrum of each wavelength is assigned a unique spreading code.
      • Channels overlap both in time and frequency domains but the code guide each wavelength.
applications
Applications
  • The major scarce resource in telecommunication is bandwidth – users want transmit at more high rate and service providers want to offer more services, hence, the need for a faster and more reliable high speed system.
  • Reducing cost of hardware, one multiplexing system can be used to combine and transmit multiple signals from Location A to Location B.
  • Each wavelength, λ, can carry multiple signals.
  • Mux/De-Mux serve optical switching of signals in telecommunication and other field of signal processing and transmission.
  • Future next generation internet.
advantages
Advantages
  • High data rate and throughput
    • Data rates possible in optical transmission are usually in Gbps on each wavelength.
    • Combination of different wavelengths means more throughput in one single communication systems.
  • Low attenuation
    • Optical communication has low attenuation compare to other transport system.
  • Less propagation delay
  • More services offered
  • Increase return on investment (ROI)
  • Low Bit Error Rate (BER)
shortcomings
Shortcomings
  • Fiber output  loss + dispersion
    • Signal is attenuated by fiber loss and distorted by fiber dispersion
    • Then regenerator are needed to recover the clean purposes
  • Inability of current Customer Premises Equipment (CPEs) to receive at the same transmission rate of optical transmitting systems.
    • Achieving all-optical networks
  • Optical-to-Electrical conversion overhead
    • Optical signals are converted into electrical signal using photo-detectors, switched and converted back to optical.
      • Optical/electrical/optical conversions introduce unnecessary time delays and power loss.
        • End-to-end optical transmission will be better.
future work
Future Work
  • Research in optical end user equipment
    • Mobile phones, PC, and other handheld devices receiving and transmitting at optical rate.
  • Fast regeneration of attenuated signal
  • Less distortion resulting from fiber dispersion.
  • End-to-end optical components
    • Eliminating the need for Optical-to-Electrical converter and vise versa.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Optical multiplexing is useful in signal processing and transmission.
    • Transporting multiple signals using one single fiber link
    • The growth of the internet requires fiber optic transmission to achieve greater throughput.
    • Optical multiplexing is also useful in image processing and scanning application.
  • Optical transmission is better compare to other transmission media because of its low attenuation and long distance transmission profile.