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Thermal Property of Bio-material. Physical Properties of Bio-Materials (VII). Poching Wu, Ph.D. Department of Bio-Mechatronic Engineering National Ilan University. Thermal Properties of Bio-material . Dimensional Characteristics: Shape, Size, Volume, Roundness, Sphericity,

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thermal property of bio material

Thermal Property of Bio-material

Physical Properties of Bio-Materials (VII)

Poching Wu, Ph.D.

Department of Bio-Mechatronic Engineering

National Ilan University

thermal properties of bio material
Thermal Properties of Bio-material
  • Dimensional Characteristics:

Shape, Size, Volume, Roundness, Sphericity,

Unit Surface Area, Average Projected area

  • Density
  • Fluid Viscosity
  • Unit Surface Conductance
  • Latent Heat
slide3

Thermal Properties of Bio-material

  • Specific Heat
  • Thermal Conductivity
  • Mass Diffusivity or Diffusion Coefficient
  • Mass Transfer Coefficient
  • Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
  • Dimensionless Parameters
specific heat
Specific Heat

where

  • C = specific heat, kJ/kg·℃
  • Q = the heat supplied, kJ
  • w = specific weight, kg/m3
  • V = volume, m3
  • m = mass, kg
  • Dt = Temperature Difference, ℃
slide5
The specific heat of a substance denotes the variation of the temperature with the amount of heat stored within the substance.
  • This equation indicates that C is also a function of temperature.
measurement of specific heat
Measurement of Specific Heat
  • Siebel’s Equations
  • Method of Mixture
  • Method of Guarded-Plate
  • Method of Comparison Calorimeter
  • Method of Calculated Specific Heat
  • Method of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
siebel s equations 1892

Siebel’s Equations (1892)

For values above freezing,

For values below freezing,

where C = specific heat, BTU/lb·ºF

M = moisture content of the material in percent wet basis, %.

0.2 is a constant assumed to be the specific heat of the solid.

※ 1 BTU/lb·ºF = 4.187 kJ/kg·℃

haswell 1954

Haswell (1954)

Rough rice

Finished rice

Oats

method of mixture
Method of Mixture

where

Cs = specific heat of sample, kJ/kg·℃

Cw = specific heat of water, 4.2 kJ/kg·℃

Cc = specific heat of calorimeter cup or bucket, kJ/kg·℃

Ww = weight of added water, kg

Wc = weight of calorimeter cup or bucket, kg

Ws = weight of sample, kg

te = equilibrium temperature,℃

tw = initial water temperature,℃

ti = initial temperature of sample and calorimeter cup or bucket,℃

slide11
The accuracy of this method is based on the assumption that the unaccounted-for heat losses are negligible.

Example:

Cw = specific heat of water, 4.187 kJ/kg·℃

Cc = specific heat of calorimeter cup or bucket, 0.946 kJ/kg·℃

Ww = weight of added water, 0.254 kg

Wc = weight of calorimeter cup or bucket, 0.054 kg

Ws = weight of sample, 0.090 kg

te = equilibrium temperature, 30℃

tw = initial water temperature, 21℃

ti = initial temperature of sample and calorimeter cup or bucket, 73℃

substituting the given information in the equation listed above yields

Cs = 1.842 kJ/kg·℃

slide14

Method of Guarded-Plate

where V = average voltage

I = average current

Θ = time, sec

3.41 = the conversion factor from watts to BTU/hr

thermal conduction fourier s law of heat conduction
Thermal ConductionFourier’s Law of Heat Conduction
  • k = thermal conductivity, W/m℃
  • A = cross section area, m2
  • dT/dx = temperature gradient, ℃/m
factors affect the thermal conductivity
Factors affect the thermal conductivity
  • Temperature
  • the state of the substance
  • chemical composition
  • Physical (Cellular) structure
  • Density
  • Moisture Content
  • Moisture migration

Heat conduction is usually interpreted either as molecular interchange of kinetic energy or electron drift (the mobility of free electrons)

measurement of thermal conductivity
Measurement of Thermal Conductivity

Steady-State

  • Longitudinal Heat Flow Methods
  • Radial Heat Flow Methods

Cylinder Without End Guards

Cylinder With End Guards

Sphere With Central Heating Source

Concentric Cylinder Comparative Method

  • Heat of Vaporization Methods
measurement of thermal conductivity1
Measurement of Thermal Conductivity

Unsteady-State

  • Fitch Method
  • Line Heat Source Method
  • Plane Heat Source Method
  • Statistical Modeling Method
  • Frequency Response Method
  • Packed Bed Analysis Method
longitudinal heat flow methods
Longitudinal Heat Flow Methods
  • k = thermal conductivity, W/m℃
  • d = specimen thickness, m
  • q = measured rate of heat input, W
  • A = area of specimen, m2
  • Dt = temperature difference between specimen surfaces normal to heat flow, ℃
slide42

Steady State:

Transient:

radial heat flow methods cylinder without end guards
Radial Heat Flow Methods(Cylinder without End Guards)
  • p = the power used by the central heater
  • L = the length of the cylinder
  • t1 and t2 = the temperatures of the specimen at radii r1 and r2 , respectively
line heat source methods
Line Heat Source Methods
  • Q = heat input of the line heat source
  • L = length of the cylinder
  • t1 and t2 = temperatures at time q1 and q2 , respectively
thermal conductivity probe method1
Thermal Conductivity Probe Method
  • q’ = the heat input per foot of the line source
  • K = thermal conductivity of the medium infinite in size surrounding the line heat source
  • t1 and t2 = temperatures at time q1 and q2 , respectively
time correction for probe finite diameter
Time Correction for Probe Finite Diameter
  • q0 = the time correction factor
  • t1 and t2 = temperatures at time q1 and q2 , respectively

To account for the fact that any real line heat source has a finite radius.

slide48
Where

I = the input current in amps.

R = the resistance of the heating wire in ohms.

To determine the time correction factor θo:

  • Temperature, t, versus time, θ, can be plotted on graph paper with arithmetic scales.
  • Next, the instantaneous slope dt/dθ can be taken at several different times from this plot.
  • The third step is to plot the dt/dθ values against time on arithmetic scale graph paper and read the intercept on the time axis. This intercept is the time correction θo at which the rate of change of temperature dt/dθ becomes zero.
slide55
Through the solids
  • Solid to solid through the contact surface
  • Radiation between solid surfaces
  • Radiation within the voids
  • Radiation within solid to void
  • The gas film near points of contact between the solids