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An Evaluation of the USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in Wisconsin Schools Anjali Anand Emily Brown Jason Haluska Beth Lutz John Rodgers UW-Eau Claire Undergraduate Students An Evaluation of the USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in Wisconsin Schools Overview

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an evaluation of the usda fresh fruit and vegetable program in wisconsin schools2
Anjali Anand

Emily Brown

Jason Haluska

Beth Lutz

John Rodgers

UW-Eau Claire

Undergraduate Students

An Evaluation of the USDA Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Program in Wisconsin Schools
overview
Overview
  • Collaborative research
  • Childhood obesity/nutrition
  • Schools can make a difference
  • Fresh fruit and vegetable program
  • Evaluation process
  • Baseline data
  • Preliminary Analysis
  • Future Plans
childhood obesity nutrition
Childhood Obesity/Nutrition
  • 16% of children between the ages of 6-19 (over 9 million) are overweight; more than triple 1980, with an additional 14.8% at risk of becoming overweight.
  • Less than 40% meet the dietary guidelines for saturated fat.
  • Almost 80% do not eat the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables.
    • Five to nine servings per day
childhood obesity
Childhood Obesity
  • During the transition from middle school or junior high to high school, teens decreased their intake of fruits and vegetables by almost 1 serving per day
    • Roughly 4 servings to 3 servings for girls and 2.5 to fewer than 2 servings for boys.
  • Mid-adolescent girls in 2004 consumed almost one serving/day less of fruits and vegetables than girls the same age in 1999, while boys were also eating about a half serving less in 2004 than in 1999.
    • University of Minnesota, American Journal of Preventive Medicine
schools can make a difference
Schools Can Make a Difference
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advocates raising fruit and vegetable consumption in order to address the issues of overweight and obesity among children.
  • Given that children spend much of their day in school, the school environment could be the ideal place to begin exploring possible solutions.
schools can make a difference7
Schools Can Make a Difference
  • Lessening unhealthy food choices in schools increases fruit and vegetable consumption and school lunch participation.
  • Lowering the price of healthy choices increases consumption of healthy food items in lunch a la carte and vending machines.
    • French and Wechsler 2004, Preventative Medicine
    • CDC Healthy Youth
schools can make a difference8
Schools Can Make a Difference
  • One third of students opted for vegetables compared to less than 5% of those at the comparison school not receiving nutrition education in evaluation of a salad bar project.
  • “While the salad bar makes fruits and vegetable more available for the students, an educational component is critical for influencing student behaviors and eating habits. An elementary student may not try a new food on his own, but exposure plus education can affect real change.”
    • Loyola University and University of Illinois research
    • Food Research & Action Center (FRAC)
wi fresh fruit vegetable program12
WI Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Program
  • At Parent Teacher Conferences we set up tables with 17 fruits and 11 veggies; everything from passion fruit, melons, grapes, papaya, jicama root, radishes, cabbage, spinach and cauliflower.
  • We had comments like “I never bought Kiwi because I didn’t know what to do with it” and “I have never eaten a blueberry before. I like them!”
  • A new “chef in the classroom” series has professional chefs come to school two Mondays a month to engage students in the pleasures of local food and cooking as part of farm-to-school program, Wisconsin Homegrown Lunch.
  • Mango Gazpacho
program evaluation
Program Evaluation
  • Pre-program survey March 2006 (4th, 7th, 9th)
  • Program survey I May, June 2006 (4th, 7th, 9th)
  • Program survey II March 2007 (5th, 8th, 10th)
  • 25 Program and 15 control schools
  • Food service, teacher, parent surveys
  • Focus groups and interviews
program evaluation15
Program Evaluation
  • Increase fruit and vegetable awareness and consumption through exposure and education. Attitudes, knowledge, behavior.
  • Show program to be an effective method of introducing children to fresh fruits and vegetables as a healthy food alternative.
  • Results will be reported to the USDA and the U.S. Congress to secure further funding for this project in Wisconsin.
program evaluation16
Program Evaluation
  • Other limited studies of FF&V program show some success
    • Mississippi
    • British Columbia
    • Norway
    • Texas
    • Iowa
average daily fruit vegetable consumption
Average Daily Fruit & Vegetable Consumption
  • 2 day average from daily recall on survey
  • Over reporting is an issue
  • Servings vs # of Times?
  • Day vs Week?
  • Lack of concentration?
  • Accuracy and validity of responses?
slide22

4th Grade

7th Grade

9th Grade

Average Daily Fruit & Vegetable

Consumption

by Grade and Gender

positive change in fruit vegetable attitudes
Positive Change in Fruit & Vegetable Attitudes
  • Calculate move in positive direction
  • Not willing to might be willing or willing
  • Might be willing to willing
  • Dummy variable
  • Mean gives % with positive attitude change
slide33

Positive Change in Fruit & Vegetable Behavior

  • More problematic due to over reporting
  • Limit to 10 or less
  • Group by group comparison (outliers)
  • Low pre-test consumption (0, 1, 2)
  • Ideas?
slide36

Positive Change → Program Effect

  • Incorporate regression analysis**
  • Measure program intensity
  • Data entry, round three
  • Food service data
  • Parent and teacher surveys
  • Focus groups
positive change program effect
Positive Change → Program Effect
  • Does F&V consumption increase?
    • Is effect larger for some subgroups at risk, younger?
  • Are children more willing to try F&V as snacks?
  • Do children ask parents to purchase more F&V?
  • What methods of distribution are effective?
  • What is the role of educational activities?
positive change program effect38
Positive Change → Program Effect
  • Report to USDA and U.S. Congress
  • Legislative Farm Bill for future funding
  • United Fresh Produce Association
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • Department of Health and Family Services
  • Department of Public Instruction
  • Grant proposals for local interventions