The New World Natives, Settlers & Conquistadors
Introduction • What is a lecture? • Lecture Tips • Complete the assigned readings before lecture. • If possible get Outline/Slides before class. • Make a friend in case you miss a lecture. • Take as many notes as you can. • Get a laptop/PDA with keyboard if possible. • Recording the lecture? • Good Professors will go beyond the readings during your lectures, so make sure you avoid being absent.
Native Life Prior To Colonization • Population of about 75 Million people in the “New World” • 2 Million people resided in present day Canadian borders. • More cultural diversity in area of present day Canada than in all of Europe at that time. • Population is not evenly distributed. • Thinly populated in most of Canada. • Heavily populated in St. Lawrence area, South Eastern US, Yucatan Peninsula, Present Day Mexico and Coast of Brazil.
Three major State Societies in the New World Aztecs Incas Mayans State Societies
Characteristics of State Societies • Had Cities and Urban Centres • Aztec Capital: Tenochtitlan • Inca Capital: Cuzco • Mayan Capital: Chichen Itza • Had a government with authority over city. • Aztec Leader: Tlatoani • Inca Leader: the Inca • Mayans not as politically unified but extremely scientifically advanced.
The Pyramid of the Sun and the Great Pyramid of Egypt are almost or very nearly equal to one another in base perimeter. The Pyramid of the Sun is "almost" half the height of the Great Pyramid
Characteristics of State Societies • Have Standing Armies • Large Population • Aztec Population of 200,000 people • Practiced Agriculture
Sedentary Villagers • i.e. The Hurons • Characteristics include: • Main food from Agriculture. • Semi-Sedentary Settlements. • No Army or Police • Communal Government. • Populous but not over a couple of thousand people.
Nomadic Peoples • Characteristics of Nomadic Peoples • Subsist on hunting and gathering. • Traded mainly with Sedentary villagers for Vegetables. • Changed locations seasonally. • Very small number of people in each group.
Westward Expansion • Factors that Allowed for Westward Expansion • Change in Values • The Rise of Asian Trade • The Rise of Sovereigns and Nations • The power of the Catholic Church Vasco da Gama Reaching India
Westward Expansion • Change in Technology • Ship Design • Reading the Skies • Weaponry • Navigation Astrolabe
The Voyages • Four Voyages in Total. • First Voyage of 1492 • Pinta, Nina and Santa Maria • Columbus’ Reaction Columbus Claims the New World for Spain
Studying This Era • How would you study this time period? • Which sources could you use? • Primary Sources written by people at that time. • Linguistic Analysis • Archaeology. • Oral Traditions. • Ethnohistory (combination of anthropology and history)
Problems with Sources • How would you rate European-based sources of the time? • What are potential problems that may arise? • What must you look out for? • Target Audience • Editing • The Author and his/her views. • What was the view of history at that time. • Is this a moral lesson? • Which parts are emphasized or ignored? Why? • Which method was used to compile the information?
Excerpt From The Jesuit Relations This is what these Savages told us of the taking of the Village of St. Ignace, and about Fathers Jean de Brebeuf and Gabriel L'Allemant: "The Iroquois came, to the number of twelve hundred men; took our village, and seized Father Breboauf and his companion; and set fire to all the huts. They proceeded to vent their rage on those two Fathers; for they took them both and stripped them entirely naked, and fastened each to a post. They tied both of their hands together. They tore the nails from their fingers. They beat them with a shower of blows from cudgels, on the shoulders, the loins, the belly, the legs, and the face,—there being no part of their body which did not endure this torment. " The savages told us further, that, although Father de Brebceuf was overwhelmed under the weight of these blows, he did not cease continually to speak of God, and to encourage all the new Christians who were captives like himself to suffer well, that they might die well, in order to go in company with him to Paradise…The barbarian, having said that, took a kettle full of boiling water, which he poured over his body three different times, in derision of Holy baptism. And, each time that he baptized him in this manner, the barbarian said to him, with bitter sarcasm, " Go to Heaven, for thou art well baptized." After that, they made him suffer several other torments.
Colonization • Aztecs • Colonization led by Hernan Cortes. • Began 1519 with help of Aztec Enemies. • Initially mistaken by God Quetzalcoatl • Inca • Pizzaro began conquest with 200 men in 1530-1535 • The Slaying of Atahualpa • 13 000 pounds of gold 26 000 pounds of silver. • Mayans • Difficult Conquest throughout 1600s • New France
Effects of Colonization • Diseases • Killed about 75% of the population (56 250 000 People) • Cabeza De Vaca • Cultural Devastation • The Great Debate! • De Las Casas Vs. Sepulveda • Guaman Poma De Ayala • The Columbian Exchange
"Bad confession": a priest abuses his pregnant parishioner during confession.
Don Cristóbal de León, disciple and ally of “the author Ayala,” imprisoned by the royal administrator for defending the natives of the province. “I will hang you, vile Indian!” threatens the administrator. “For my people I will suffer in these stocks,” Don Cristóbal replies. (p. 498)
Women and the New World • Dona Marina (La Malinche) • Pocahontas • Women in the Middle Ground • Les Filles Du Roi • Mary Jemison • Eunice Williams