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The Civil War Begins

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  1. The Civil War Begins Strategy, Military, and Manpower

  2. Crittenden Compromise • last ditch effort • maintains slavery where it was • extends 36 30 (Missouri Compromise) line to California - slavery allowed S. of the line • Fails! – war is inevitable

  3. South Carolina Secedes • Dec. 20, 1860 • Why? - election of Lincoln - believe Lincoln will end slavery “his opinions and purposes are hostile to slavery. He declared, “Government cannot endure permanently half slave, half free.”

  4. Confederacy Forms • SC joined by Mississippi 1-9 Florida 1-10 Alabama 1-11 Georgia 1-19 Louisiana 1-26 Texas 2-1 • February 1861

  5. Deep South is first to secede

  6. Jefferson Davis • President of Confederacy FYI - Black hawk war 1831 - cotton planter - member of US House of Reps - colonel Mex. Am War - Senator - Sec. of war for Pres. Pierce - Senator - inaugurated Feb. 22 1862

  7. We feel that our cause is just and holy; we protest solemnly in the face of mankind that we desire peace at any sacrifice save that of honour and independence; we ask no conquest, no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States with which we were lately confederated; all we ask is to be let alone; that those who never held power over us shall not now attempt our subjugation by arms. Jefferson Davis

  8. Richmond Virginia Confederate Capital

  9. Alexander Stephens • Vice President of the Confederacy FYI - lawyer - planter/slave owner - Georgia House and Senate - US House of Reps - voted against secession in GA convention

  10. Lincoln’s Inauguration • “no State upon its own mere motion can lawfully get out of the Union” • “I am loath to close. We are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies. Though passion may have strained, it must not break our bonds of affection. The mystic chords of memory, stretching from every battlefield and patriot grave to every living heart and hearthstone all over this broad land, will yet swell the chorus of the Union, when again touched, as surely they will be, by the better angels of our nature.”

  11. Fort Sumter Crisis • 1861 • federal fort in Confederate territory - Ft. Sumter Charleston, SC - Ft. Pickens Pensacola, FL • Lincoln’s choices - send in troop = aggressor - leave it to Confed = weak - chooses ½ way send in supplies

  12. April 12, 1861 rebels attack the fort • 2 days later it falls to Confederacy

  13. Lincoln Reacts • calls for 75,000 militiamen • 4 more states secede Virginia 4-17 Arkansas 5-6 Tennessee 5-7 N. Carolina 5-20 • April 19 calls for a blockade of southern ports

  14. Confederacy is Complete

  15. Border States Missouri Kentucky Maryland Delaware

  16. Confederacy Union United States Of America Blue, Yankees Confederate States Of America Grey, Rebels

  17. Choosing Sides • Robert E. Lee- VA • Son of “Lighthorse Harry” Lee a Revolutionary Hero and married to a descendant of Martha Washington • offered command of the Federal forces (Union) • decides he cannot go against his “country” (VA) • He could not “raise my hand against my birthplace, my home, my children.”

  18. Choosing Sides- a House Divided! • In every state except SC regiments were organized to fight in the Union • approximately 100,000 Southerners fought for the Union • 1 of every 5 from Arkansas killed in the war fought for the Union • In Texas German Americans opposed Secession and the war - Confederates send in troops to repress Union sentiment - Any German criticizing the Confederate cause was hanged, shot, or whipped - killed 35 German-Am trying to escape to Mexico • Confederacy kills several members of the Arkansas Peace Society

  19. 23 states including 4 border 22 million people 2x Railroads more industry produced 97% of countries firearms more farm production more access to capital 11 states 9 million people (4million are slaves) Economic Comparison Union Confederacy

  20. navy grows from 90 ships to 650 better leaders by end of war defensive war knowledge of land more experienced leaders - strong military tradition in South - Citadel and VA Military Institute - West Point Military Comparison Union Confederacy

  21. Union StrategyAnaconda Plan • Blockade Confederate Seaports - choke off flow of foreign funds 2. Go after the Capital-Richmond 3. Penetrate the Heart of the Confederacy - take the Mississippi River - Divide the Confederacy

  22. proposed by Winfield Scott

  23. Southern Strategy • Defend - the Union will give up and leave them alone • Get support from Europe - GB and France - similar to Revolutionary War - believe King Cotton Diplomacy will ensure aid

  24. Union Border 1,200 miles The South Coastline 3,500 miles Territory 750,000 sq. m

  25. taxes - 1st income tax paper currency - “greenbacks” - not backed by gold & silver - causes inflation borrowing - sold bonds to people - loans from banks 1st attempt-requisition funds from states 1863 income tax borrowing - ineffectively sold bonds - could not convince Europe focused on paper money - huge inflation! Financing the War Union Confederacy

  26. begins w/ voluntary recruitment March 1863 Draft law -avoid draft by 1. hiring replacement 2. pay $300 fee begins w/ voluntary recruitment April 1862 Conscription Act = Draft - white males 18-35 yrs - by 1864 17-50yrs - avoid draft by 1. hiring substitute 2. exemption of 1 man on plantations w/ more than 20 slaves Raising an Army Union Confederacy

  27. manual labor - building fortifications, digging trenches, etc… cooking, laundry, etc last desperate measure - passed conscription for 300,000 - war ended before used Use of African Americans Union Confederacy • originally excluded from war • After Emancipation Proclamation • - enlisted in army to • fight • - dig trenches and build fortifications