Shots Fired at Fort Sumter Though President Lincoln did not want war with the South, he did not recognize the Confederacy, and vowed to protect union property below the Mason – Dixon Line.
Lincoln informed the South that he would be sending supplies to Fort Sumter in South Carolina. The Confederacy attacked the Fort to take it from the Union before supplies could arrive. At 4:30 A.M. on April 12, 1861, Southern forces began to bombard Sumter with cannon. The Union forces inside the fort held on for 34 hours before finally surrendering to the Confederacy.
Lincoln Calls Out the Militia • President Lincoln called on Northern states to gather 75,000 militiamen to volunteer for 90 days. Their job would be to “put down the uprising in the South.” • In the weeks that followed, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas left the Union to join the Confederacy.
Thousands Rush to Enlist Thousands of young men in both the North and the South rushed to enlist as war became inevitable. They not only wanted to support their side of the conflict, they also wanted adventure.
Robert E. Lee With the secession of Virginia, the Confederacy not only gained a wealthy, heavily populated state, they also gained a brilliant military general – Robert E. Lee.
The Border States Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware and Missouri were all border states. Each state decided to stay loyal to the Union. In the end there were 24 states in the Union and 11 in the Confederacy.
22 million people 85 % of Nations Factories Naval Power Shipyards Twice the amount of rail lines President Abraham Lincoln 5.5 million free people Agricultural – dependant on foreign and Northern production. Skilled Military Leaders Fighting a Defensive War North v. South
The Confederate Strategy At first, the Confederacy planned to remain strictly on the defensive. They hoped the North would simply tire of fighting and let them alone as a new nation They planned to use King Cotton as a way to gain foreign support. The Confederacy thought that Europe’s need for their cotton would force France and Britain support the Southern cause.
The Union Strategy The Union developed an offensive plan called the Anaconda Plan. They hoped to choke the South into surrender.
The Battle of Bull Run • On July 1, 1861, the Union and the Confederacy clashed at a Bull Run Creek near Manassas, Virginia • Families brought picnic lunches to watch the action. • Things got uglier than expected. • The south routed the north
Life in the Army • Contaminated water and food caused soldiers to have chronic diarrhea. • Doctors did not know until toward the end of the war that it was necessary to wash their hands and instruments between operations • Soldiers were infested with lice and fleas • Twice as many men died of disease as died in battle and from war related injuries.
Army life was horrible for both sides. The picture at left shows wounded soldiers in a field hospital near the Battle of Antietam
What were some of the characteristics of a typical Civil War soldier? Image THE TYPICAL CIVIL WAR SOLDIER Age Between 18 and 30 Occupation Farmer Training Many long daily drill sessions Hardships Inadequate food and clothing, crude shelters, dirty camps that stank, poor personal hygiene, chronic sickness, poor medical treatment
Changes in Military Technology Military technology advanced during the civil war. Iron clad ships and even submarines were used. Repeating rifles were introduced as well as the Gatlin Gun.
• How were the wartime experiences of Northern and Southern soldiers alike? • What factors contributed to the spread of disease among soldiers? • How did the use of the rifle and minié ball change combat tactics in the Civil War?
Think About • the multiple reasons that people had for enlisting • what you consider valid reasons for fighting Forming and Supporting Opinions What were the motives that led individual soldiers to fight in the Civil War? Back to Home
Main Idea In the first two years of the war, neither side gained a decisive victory over the other. Why It Matters Now A long war can cause much death and destruction and leave a bitter legacy.
No End in Sight The Union general in the West was General Ulysses S. Grant.
Grant’s Victories in the West Grant used iron clad gunboats to capture Confederate river forts in Tennessee.
Battle of Shiloh The Union and the Confederacy fought a fierce battle near Shiloh Church in Corinth, Mississippi, leaving 13,000 Union and 11,000 Confederate soldiers dead. Lightening in the night sky revealed the carnage. Wild hogs fed on the bodies of the dead.
“The scenes on this field would have cured anybody of war.”General William Tecumseh Sherman
The Fall of New Orleans • New Orleans was captured on April 25, 1862 by Union forces. This was a heavy blow to the south.
Lee Claims Victory in the South • General Robert E. Lee defeated the Union in Virginia at the second Battle of Bull Run. • Soon after Lee made a bold move by crossing the Potomac into Maryland and taking the war North of the Mason – Dixon.
Bloody Antietam • On September 17, 1862, the Union and Confederacy fought the bloodiest battle in American History. 25,000 bodies were left mangled in the corn field that “looked as if it had been struck by bloody hail.” – John B. Gordon
Think About • Lee’s military skills and style • the North’s resources Making Inferences What does Lee’s invasion of the North suggest about his qualities as a general and a leader? Back to Home
1How and when did the Civil War start? 2What advantages did the North have at the beginning of the war? 3What were the war strategies of the two sides? 4What was the typical Civil War soldier like? 5Why did so many people volunteer to fight in the Civil War?
6Why was the incidence of disease so high among Civil War soldiers? 8What goal of the Union strategy did Grant further, and how did he do it? 10How did Lee’s appointment to head the Army of Northern Virginia affect the course of the war?
Comparing and Contrasting NORTH SOUTH Reasons for fighting to preserve Union to defend homeland Advantages greater manpower and resources fighting on their own territory Disadvantages hard to carry battle to enemy fewer resources and soldiers Military strategy surrounding and overwhelming the South holding out until North grew weary Battle victories Shiloh, Antietam Bull Run, Seven Days’ Battles Back to Home