SOL Quiz 14 Cultural Changes II 1800-1860
1. Which person has been called the Father of the American Industrial Revolution? a. John Rolfe b. Eli Whitney c. Zebulon Pike d. Noah Webster Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin and his development of the technology of interchangeable parts greatly stimulated American industry. He is known as the Father of the American Industrial Revolution.
2. How did Ralph Waldo Emerson, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Herman Melville, and Walt Whitman contribute to American life between 1825 and 1855? a. They invented labor-saving machinery. b. They developed new scientific ideas. c. They were leaders in the field of public health. d. They created a body of American literature. Emerson wrote "Nature" in 1836, Hawthorne wrote "The Scarlet Letter" in 1850, Melville wrote "Moby-Dick," or the "Whale" in 1851, and Whitman (a poet) wrote "Leaves of Grass" in 1855. Their philosophy, novels, and poetry created a body of literature that expressed the American experience and became popular worldwide.
3. Who wrote and published the first dictionary of American English? a. Oliver Wendell Holmes b. Homer Winslow c. Herman Melville d. Noah Webster His dictionary contained American expressions instead of the British ones. For example, it included "suspenders" instead of "braces" and "elevators" instead of "lifts." Webster also edited American theme readers (textbooks used to teach reading) for school children.
4. Which of the following was associated with education reform during the early to mid-1800s? a. Washington Irving b. Lucretia Mott c. Horace Mann d. Sojourner Truth As a reformer of public schools in Massachusetts, Horace Mann persuaded the state legislature to improve the state's public education system. Under his leadership, Massachusetts built more schools, improved teachers' pay, and opened three teachers colleges to provide teacher training.
5. Which activity of the 1800s was aimed at reducing the consumption of liquor? a. abolition movement b. temperance movement c. reform schools d. urban development The temperance movement attempted to restrain or ban the consumption of liquor. Many Americans of the 1800s (and later) opposed "demon rum" and other alcoholic beverages. They blamed crime and mental illness on its use. Some in the movement also sought (particularly later) to outlaw the manufacture of alcoholic beverages.
6. Which person is known for helping the mentally ill during the mid-1800s? a. Dorothea Dix b. Frederick Douglass c. Lucretia Mott d. Benjamin West A Massachusetts schoolteacher was asked to read to inmates at a local prison. While there, Dix was shocked by the living conditions. She was particularly upset at the practice of placing the mentally ill in prisons with hardened criminals. Dix informed the public of the cruel treatment that the mentally ill endured even though they had not committed any crimes.
7. Which of the following MOST accurately describes the similarity of "The Genius of Universal Emancipation," "The Liberator," and "Uncle Tom's Cabin"? a. They were all anti-slavery novels. b. All three were anti-slavery magazines. c. They all pointed out the evils of slavery. d. All three were written by Southerners. All three illustrated the evils of slavery. In 1821 Benjamin Lundy published the first issue of a weekly anti-slavery newspaper, "The Genius of Universal Emancipation." In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison, of Boston, Massachusetts, published the first edition of his anti-slavery newspaper, "The Liberator." Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote the novels, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" and "Life Among the Lowly" (2 vols.) in 1852.
8. Which of the following was a well-known abolitionist? a. Frederick Douglass b. Susan B. Anthony c. Washington Irving d. Walt Whitman Douglass had been born a slave and had taught himself to read -- even though it was a crime for slaves to become educated. In 1838 he escaped from his owner in Maryland and fled to the North. There he became well known as a speaker at abolitionist meetings. His stories of the abuses of slavery increased the determination of the abolitionists to free all slaves.
9. The Seneca Falls Convention was a high point of the a. abolitionist movement b. nativist movement c. literacy drive d. women's rights movement The women's rights movement of the 1800s reached a high point with the Seneca Falls (New York) Convention of 1848. The Convention demanded equality for women at work, in school, and before the law. Most of these goals were not reached until the 20th century.