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SOL Quiz 1 Pre-Columbian Cultures
1. The original inhabitants of the Americas migrated about 20,000 years ago from a. Europe b. Africa c. Asia d. Australia The original inhabitants of America (called "Indians" or "Native Americans") migrated to America from Asia about 20,000 years ago. Anthropologists have theorized that these early migrants crossed from Asia to America over a land bridge that then connected Asia to Alaska.
2. When prehistoric people first came to America, they crossed over a "land bridge." The present location of that crossing point is the a. Isthmus of Panama b. Cumberland Gap c. Donner Pass d. Bering Strait A body of water, the Bering Strait, now covers a land bridge that once allowed prehistoric people to migrate from Asia to North America. This land bridge, which connected Asia and Alaska, was above sea level during the last Ice Age of 20,000 years ago.
3. The migration of the earliest populations in the Americas was generally from a. North America to South America b. East Coast to West Coast c. West Coast to East Coast d. South America to North America The earliest population movement in the Americas was generally from North America to South America. The "first" Americans settled in Alaska. Population movement then proceeded south.
4. Which term is broad enough to include the other three? a. language b. dress c. religion d. culture "Culture" is a term broad enough to include "language," "dress," and "religion." Culture is a pattern of living which members of a society are expected to follow. This pattern includes language, customs, dress, religion, etc. The culture of Middle Age Europeans was quite different from that of pre-Columbian Native Americans.
5. The Mayans developed a. aqueducts b. written language c. calendars d. all of the above The Mayans developed all of the above. Mayans were a highly sophisticated society who flourished in Mexico and Central America between about 400 and 900 A.D. They developed calendars to schedule the planting of crops, a written language for their priests, and aqueducts to feed water into their highly populated cities.
6. Which of these Native American societies once lived in Mexico? a. Inca b. Aztec c. Natchez d. Pueblo Present-day Mexico was once the home of the Aztecs. The Aztecs developed a highly sophisticated agricultural society in the 14th and 15th centuries. Through war and diplomacy they conquered and ruled an empire of several million people. They were conquered themselves by the Spanish conquistador, Hernando Cortes, in 1521.
7. Which concept was NOT a part of pre-Columbian Indian culture? a. capitalism b. trial by jury c. democracy d. confederation Capitalism was not a part of pre-Columbian culture. Indians did not practice the concept of private ownership of land or the use of that land for private profit. Instead Indians believed that land was held or owned in common by tribal members. Some variation of trail by jury, democracy, and confederation, on the other hand, could be found in several Native American societies.
8. Which ancient language was spoken in the Roman Empire and became a basis of French, Spanish, and Portuguese? a. Italian b. Romanian c. Latin d. Greek The ancient Romans spoke Latin. As their empire expanded into lands now known as France, Spain, and Portugal, the Romans carried their Latin language with them. Latin became a base for the modern languages of these lands, and formed an essential part of European culture.
9. In terms of religious beliefs, many Native Americans worshipped nature, while most Europeans of the Middle Ages believed in a. monotheism b. heliocentrism c. polytheism d. pantheism Most Europeans of the Middle Ages were monotheists, which meant that they believed that there was only one God. This was an important part of Christianity, which was the main religion of Europe.
10. Which event significantly limited the power of English kings in the Middle Ages? a. Norman Conquest b. Star Chamber c. Round Table d. Magna Carta The Magna Carta, or Great Charter, limited the power of the English King in the Middle Ages. English noblemen forced King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215. This document limited the power of the king by requiring him to get the consent of a body of barons and bishops (called the Great Council) before he could raise taxes. The Magna Carta also stated that no freeman should be imprisoned unless found guilty by a jury of his peers. The right of taxation by consent and the right of trial by jury were later extended to all Englishmen. During the Revolutionary War, many Americans revolted against the British because they believed that they were being denied these rights.