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TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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TYPES OF MENTAL ILLNESS. OVERVIEW. DEPRESSION ANXIETY SUBSTANCE ABUSE. DEPRESSION. DEPRESSION. UNLIKE SCHIZ AND BIPOLAR MUCH MORE COMMON – ESPECIALLY RECENTLY “AGE OF DEPRESSION”. ADULT PREVALENCE. Treatment for Depression. Diagnoses in Psychotherapy. Depression Articles 1966-2001.

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overview
OVERVIEW
  • DEPRESSION
  • ANXIETY
  • SUBSTANCE ABUSE
depression
DEPRESSION
  • UNLIKE SCHIZ AND BIPOLAR
  • MUCH MORE COMMON – ESPECIALLY RECENTLY
  • “AGE OF DEPRESSION”
slide11
MOOD
  • EITHER (OR BOTH) PRESENCE OF NEGATIVE MOOD
  • OR ABSENCE OF POSITIVE MOOD
physical symptoms
PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
  • LOW ENERGY, FATIGUE
  • SLEEP DISTURBANCES
  • APPETITE DISTURBANCES
  • VULNERABILITY TO MANY PHYSICAL ILLNESSES
psychological symptoms
PSYCHOLOGICAL SYMPTOMS
  • EMOTIONAL - SADNESS, APATHY, LACK OF PLEASURE
  • COGNITIVE - HOPELESSNESS AND HELPLESSNESS, LOW SELF-ESTEEM
  • BEHAVIORAL - WITHDRAWAL, SUICIDE ATTEMPTS
types of depression
TYPES OF DEPRESSION
  • CONTINUOUS
  • HOW SEVERE AND HOW LONG
types
TYPES
  • MAJOR DEPRESSION - ABOVE
  • PSYCHOTIC (MELANCHOLIC) - MORE SEVERE, IMMOBILE, SUICIDAL
  • DYSTHYMIA – LOWER LEVEL BUT LONGER LASTING (TWO YEARS)
  • DISTRESS - REACTIVE TO LIFE EVENT, GOES AWAY WHEN CONDITIONS CHANGE, NOT A DISORDER
causes
CAUSES
  • VARIED
  • CURRENT LOSSES AND TRAUMAS
  • CHRONIC OPPRESSIVE SITUATIONS
  • EARLY LOSS EVENTS AND ABUSE
  • SOME GENETIC/BIOLOGICAL
characteristics
CHARACTERISTICS
  • GREAT VARIANCE ACROSS SOCIETIES (3% - 30%)
  • IN U.S. 10% EACH YEAR; 20% OVER LIFETIME
  • 2/3 WOMEN
  • INVERSE WITH SOCIAL CLASS
  • MOST AMONG YOUNG, ELDERLY
prognosis course
PROGNOSIS (COURSE)
  • COURSE HIGHLY VARIABLE
  • MDD USUALLY RECURRENT
  • AVERAGE EPISODE ABOUT 3 - 6 MONTHS
  • DYSTHYMIA CHRONIC
  • DISTRESS ENDS WITH POSITIVE EVENTS
treatment
TREATMENT
  • TREATED WITH SELECTIVE SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITORS (SSRI) - PROZAC, PAXIL, XOLOFT
  • NOT MORE EFFECTIVE THAN EARLIER DRUGS
  • FEWER SIDE EFFECTS, BETTER TOLERATED, LESS ADDICTIVE, FEWER OVERDOSES
  • HIGHER RISK OF SUICIDE?
treatment cont
TREATMENT (CONT.)
  • COGNITIVE THERAPY
  • PSYCHOTHERAPY
  • COMBINATION OF DRUGS AND PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPY MIGHT BE BEST
symptoms
SYMPTOMS
  • PSYCHOLOGICAL
  • UNEASE, FEAR, WORRY, ANXIOUSNESS, DREAD
  • PHYSICAL
  • HEART PALPITATIONS, TREMBLING, STOMACH UPSET, FAINTING
major types
MAJOR TYPES
  • PHOBIAS - INTENSE FEAR OF A SPECIFIC OBJECT OR SITUATION
  • PANIC - SITUATIONAL, EPISODIC
  • GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER
major types28
MAJOR TYPES
  • OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE - PREOCCUPYING THOUGHTS OR BEHAVIORS
major types29
MAJOR TYPES
  • SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER
major types30
MAJOR TYPES
  • POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER
comorbidity
COMORBIDITY
  • VERY HIGH COMORBIDITY WITH DEPRESSION
  • MOST DEPRESSED PEOPLE ALSO ANXIOUS
  • ANXIOUS PEOPLE OFTEN DEPRESSED
characteristics32
CHARACTERISTICS
  • GREAT VARIANCE ACROSS SOCIETIES
  • IN U.S. 20% EACH YEAR, 30% OVER LIFETIME
social characteristics
SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • 2/3 FEMALE
  • HIGH ETHNIC VARIATION
  • E.G. BLACKS MORE PHOBIAS, HISPANICS MORE PANIC, JEWS MORE OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE
treatment34
TREATMENT
  • MEDICATION
  • SSRI’S
  • ANTI-ANXIETY - XANAX
  • BEHAVIOR THERAPY
substance dependence abuse
SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE/ABUSE
  • DEPENDENCE
  • FREQUENT AND EXCESSIVE USE
  • GROWING TOLERANCE/PROBLEMS WITH WITHDRAWAL
  • ABUSE
  • PROBLEMATIC CONSEQUENCES OF USE - FAMILY, WORK, LEGAL
characteristics36
CHARACTERISTICS
  • ALCOHOL ABUSE OR DEPENDENCE - 10% YEAR, 25% LIFETIME
  • DRUG ABUSE OR DEPENDENCE - 3% YEAR; 12% LIFETIME
characteristics37
CHARACTERISTICS
  • 2/3 MALE
  • YOUNG PEOPLE
  • MIXED RESULTS ON SOCIAL CLASS
  • MUCH ETHNIC VARIATION
  • E.G. ISLAMIC, ASIANS, JEWS LITTLE, IRISH AND EASTERN EUROPE MUCH, BLACKS CURVILINEAR
treatment38
TREATMENT
  • VARIATION IN TREAT OR PUNISH?
  • MUCH TREATMENT INVOLUNTARY
  • GROUP THERAPY - AA
  • SOME MEDICATION