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Mental Illness. A medical condition that disrupts a person's thinking , feeling, mood, ability to relate to others and daily functioning. Areas we will cover. Autism Spectrum Disorder ADHD B ipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Eating Disorders Major Depression OCD
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Mental Illness A medical condition that disrupts a person's thinking, feeling, mood, ability to relate to others and daily functioning.
Areas we will cover Autism Spectrum Disorder ADHD Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Eating Disorders Major Depression OCD Panic Disorder PTSD Schizophrenia Seasonal Affective Disorder Tourette's Syndrome
Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are complex developmental disorders of brain function.
Overview Since the causes for Autism Spectrum Disorders are unknown, an ASD diagnosis is based purely on observations or behavioral reports. In contrast to other medical syndromes, ASDs are not diseases: They are developmental disorders that reflect differences in the way that children develop from very early on to adulthood. Within the category of ASDs, there are a number of different levels of severity.
Causes There is no known direct cause of the disorders, which is one of the reasons why ASDs continue to remain elusive to doctors in the field. ASDs are complex disorders and have remained relatively inaccessible for study
Signs Lack of or delay in spoken language Repetitive use of language and/or motor mannerisms (e.g., hand-flapping, twirling objects) Little or no eye contact Lack of interest in peer relationships Lack of spontaneous or make-believe play Persistent fixation on parts of objects Does not smile
Treatment At present, there is no specific cure for ASDs Medication (serotonin based) Behavior Interventions Educational Interventions
ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Overview A condition characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. The most commonly diagnosed behavior disorder in young people, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that ADHD affects an estimated 9 percent of children aged 3-17 and 2-4 percent of adults.
Causes While we don’t know for sure what causes ADHD, we do know that ADHD probably results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors. ADHD is a brain-based disorder and is strongly inherited, but parenting styles do not cause ADHD.
Signs Fails to pay close attention to details or make careless mistakes in schoolwork, work or other activities Fidget with their hands or feet or squirm in their seat
Signs Have difficulty organizing tasks and activities Have difficulty awaiting their turn Have difficulty engaging in leisure activities quietly Interrupt or intrude on others
Treatment Medication (helps 70-80%) Behavioral Treatment ADHD Coaching
Bipolar Disorder A chronic illness with recurring episodes of mania and depression that can last from one day to months.
Overview This mental illness causes unusual and dramatic shifts in mood, energy and the ability to think clearly. Cycles of high (manic) and low (depressive) moods may follow an irregular pattern that differs from the typical ups and downs experienced by most people.
Causes - No known causes - Bipolar Disorder does have a genetic component
Signs Mania (High) Extremely talkative Less need for sleep Surges of energy Depression (Low) Irritability Hopelessness
Treatment Medication Therapy Learn to take responsibility
Borderline Personality Disorder A serious mental illness that can be challenging for everyone involved, including the individuals with the illness, as well their friends and family members. BPD is characterized by impulsivity and instability in mood, self-image, and personal relationships.
Causes The exact causes of BPD remain unknown, although the roles of both environmental and biological factors are thought to play a role in people who develop this illness.
Signs Inappropriate, intense or uncontrollable anger Recurring suicidal threats or non-suicidal self-injurious behavior, such as cutting or burning one’s self Impulsive behaviors that result in adverse outcomes and psychological distress, such as excessive spending, sexual encounters, substance use, shoplifting, reckless driving or binge eating.
Treatment Medication Therapist
Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa
Anorexia Nervosa A serious and potentially life-threatening mental illness. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder defined by an inability to maintain one’s body weight within 15 percent of their Ideal Body Weight (IBW). An intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted image of one’s body, denial of the seriousness of the illness
Bulimia Nervosa Characterized by a destructive pattern of binging (eating too much unhealthy food) and inappropriate, reactionary behaviors (called purging) Includes self-induced vomiting and the abuse of laxatives, enemas or diuretics (e.g., caffeine). Other behaviors such as “fasting” or restrictive dieting following binge-eating episodes are also common, as well as excessive exercising.
Treatment Medication Doctors Therapist
Major Depression Major depression is a mood state that goes well beyond temporarily feeling sad or blue. It is a serious medical illness that affects one’s thoughts, feelings, behavior, mood and physical health. Depression is a life-long condition in which periods of wellness alternate with recurrences of illness.
Overview Each year depression affects 5-8 percent of adults in the United States. Depression occurs 70 percent more frequently in women than in men for reasons that are not fully understood. Without treatment, the frequency and severity of these symptoms tend to increase over time.
Signs Depressed Mood Poor Concentration Fatigue Insomnia Appetite Disturbances
Treatment Medications Therapist Exercise Friends and Family
OCDObsessive Compulsive Disorder Intrusive, irrational thoughts—unwanted ideas or impulses that repeatedly appear in a person's mind.
Overview More than 2 percent of the U.S. population, or nearly one out of every 40 people, will be diagnosed with OCD at some point in their lives. Two to three times more common than schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Panic Disorder An uncontrollable and terrifying response to ordinary, nonthreatening situations. People who experience recurrent panic attacks, have persistent anxiety or fear regarding their panic attacks and change their behavior in an attempt to avoid further panic attacks may have panic disorder.
Overview . People who experience recurrent panic attacks, have persistent anxiety or fear regarding their panic attacks and change their behavior in an attempt to avoid further panic attacks may have panic disorder.
Signs Constant worrying Fear the Fear Choking or smothering sensations Hot, sweating and cold flashes
Treatment Medication Behavioral Therapy
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder(PTSD) When faced with terror, less critical body functions (e.g., the parts of the brain where memory, emotion and thinking are processed) get "turned off" in the service of immediate physical safety. Specifically, this “fight or flight” response increases the heart rate, moves more blood to muscles in order to run and adds stress hormones to help fight off infection and bleeding in case of a wound. As a result, the traumatic experiences are not integrated at the time they happen because the body is focusing entirely on immediate physical safety
Overview PTSD can affect many different people, from survivors of rape and survivors of natural disasters to military service men and women 10 percent of women and 5 percent of men are diagnosed with PTSD in their lifetimes, and many others will experience some adverse effects from trauma at some point in their lives
Signs Recurrent nightmares or flashbacks Physical reactions to triggers that symbolize or resemble the event Avoidance of activities, places or people that remind the person of the trauma
Signs Outbursts of anger/irritability Exaggerated startle response Difficulty concentrating
Treatment Medication Therapy Group Therapy
Schizophrenia Loss of contact with reality and usually involves hallucinations and delusions Impairs a person's ability to function Interferes with a person's ability to think clearly, manage emotions, make decisions and relate to others
Overview Schizophrenia is a serious mental illness that affects 2.4 million American adults over the age of 18. Suicide is a serious risk for those with schizophrenia, occurring at a much higher rate than the general population.
Signs Emotional flatness Inability to start or finish activities Lack of content in speech Hallucinations Delusions
Treatment Medication Family Support Behavioral Therapy
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Characterized by recurrent episodes of depression, usually in late fall and winter, alternating with periods of normal or high mood the rest of the year.
Signs Depression symptoms Usually begin in October or November and subside in March or April Oversleeping Weight gain Daytime fatigue
Treatment Light Therapy Medication
Tourette’s Syndrome A neurologic illness that begins in childhood or adolescence. The essential feature of TS is tics—multiple movements or vocalizations that are sudden, rapid and purposeless.
Signs Tics are recurrent, non-rhythmic, stereotyped (the same each time) actions or vocalizations that can usually be suppressed for a period when a person focuses on stopping them. Tics occur many times a day, nearly every day or intermittently throughout a span of more than one year.