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The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages Violence, Influence, and Beauty
Why was it so powerful? It owned land It was rich-tithes, gifts It excommunicated people It could not be controlled by the King
Benefits from the Church • Provide Education • Give people hope and sense of security • Help the Poor and Sick • Give structure to society
Cathedrals became very important. Why? Showed the Church was center of life Showed the Church was blessed by God They were built by the community and became a unifying project. They were beautiful and displayed local art and sculpture They gave people a place to feel hope and inspiration They revealed the power and wealth of the Church
How does architecture change in the Middle Ages? • Style switch from Romanesque to Gothic Style • The Gothic style occurs as the Church’s power and wealth increases in the High Middle Ages. • Some people see the Gothic style as a symbol of the Church’s extravagance.
Romanesque Style ArchitectureEarly Middle Ages Rounded Arches Barrel Vaults Thick Walls Dark Simple interiors Small windows
Gothic Style ArchitectureThe High Middle Ages Pointed Arches High Narrow Vaults Thinner Walls Flying Buttresses Elaborate, Ornate interiors Stained Glass Windows
Pointed Arches • The Arch bore more of the weight than the walls • Therefore, the walls could be thinner • The roof was higher and the interior was more open
Q: What is a Flying Buttress? A: A support that connected inner walls to outer towers Q: Why are they important? A: They support the walls so they can be higher and thinner
What was on the outside of Gothic Cathedrals? Gargoyles: Grotesque Monsters Why? Rain spouts AND to protect the Church from evil
Q: What was the inside the Cathedral like?A: Tall, open, full of light and color
Q: Why were pictures so important? A: Most people were illiterate so the Church used images to teach about the Bible, the danger of Hell, and the importance of the Saints. Images in the ChurchThe Use of Paintings and Stained Glass
Stained Glass Windows • Thinner walls allowed beautiful windows • Colors made from plants, shells, dyes mixed into the glass • Pictures were from Biblical stories or were about famous leaders and important people from the time
The “Poor Man’s Bible” window at Canterbury Cathedral 13th century
A demon pulling people off the ladder An angel helping people up the ladder
Review: Cathedrals • With your table discuss why Cathedrals were so important in the Middle Ages
What is an illumination? • An Embellishment (decoration) added • the pages of a manuscript • Comes from illuminatewhich means • to fill with light. • Letters were covered with Gold Leaf which made them appear to glow. • Typically the first letter of a page or paragraph • Surrounded by plants, flowers, or mythical figures
Why were illuminations important? • Done by Monks and kept in Cathedrals • Often upon request from the King to show importance of document • Great beauty and wealth
Relics and Pilgrimages • People travel to see items belonging to Christ or Saints • (Wood from the Cross, Bones, Hair, Cloth, Crucifix) • Had Special Powers—Healing, Forgiveness • Items kept in Churches and Cathedrals
Santiago de Compostela • Spain • Remains of St. James
Canterbury • Tomb of Saint Thomas Becket • Cloth soaked in his blood
Results of Pilgrimages • Growth of Cathedrals and Shrines • Growth of Towns • Growth of Travel and Tourism • Growth of Tolerance
The Byzantine Empire • Eastern Half of the Roman Empire—split in 330AD • Still prospered until1100 while rest of empire broke into European Countries (Dark Ages) • Situated between Europe and the Islamic World • Capital was Constantinople • Christian but Eastern Orthodox, not Roman Catholic. Therefore, not under control of the Pope
What was the problem for the Byzantine Empire? The Seljuk Turks were invading The Turks restricted pilgrimages to the Holy Land
How do the Crusades Begin? Byzantines cry HELP!! Pope Urban II agrees. Why?
Look at the sources on page 195 and see if you can determine all the reasons people responded to the Pope’s request
Reasons from the Sources Help protect your brothers from the evil Muslims Jerusalem needs to be rescued Sins would immediately be forgiven Stop fighting each other, fight the Muslims Better land and the chance to get rich
Other reasons to help the Byzantine Empire • Unite Western Europe in a common cause with the Pope as the leader • The Holy Land and the Byzantine Empire controlled prosperous trade routes • Protect Christendom from the Spread of Islam • Eastern Orthodox Church was a rival of the Catholic Church
How did the Church convince people to go fight for the First Crusade? • Free from Penance and a sure spot in Heaven • Sell it as a ‘Pilgrimage’ • “God Wills It”
Why did people really go? • Religious Reasons • To Get Rich • To See the World
First Crusade: Christians Capture Jerusalem 1. Examine the sources on page 196-197 and see if you can determine the reasons the Christians were successful. 2. Also, according to the sources, how did many Christians act on this Crusade? How believable are all of these sources? For each source, discuss one reason the report might be biased.
How many Crusades are there? • 8 • Christians capture Jerusalem in the 1st, Lose it by the 3rd • Set up 4 Crusader States that they rule for awhile • Never win anything else
Crusade or Invasion? • Muslims and Christians did (and some still do) have different opinions about the Crusades. Look at the textbook excerpts on page 200. Answer the 3 questions in the yellow box. • Make a prediction: Who benefitted most from the Crusades—the Christians in Europe or the Muslims in the Middle East? What are some ways both cultures might have changed because of 200 years of religious war?