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The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages. Violence, Influence, and Beauty. Why was it so powerful?. It owned land It was rich-tithes, gifts It excommunicated people It could not be controlled by the King. Benefits from the Church. Provide Education. Give people hope and sense of security.

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The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages

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the catholic church in the middle ages

The Catholic Church in the Middle Ages

Violence, Influence, and Beauty

why was it so powerful
Why was it so powerful?

It owned land

It was rich-tithes, gifts

It excommunicated people

It could not be controlled by the King

benefits from the church
Benefits from the Church
  • Provide Education
  • Give people hope and sense of security
  • Help the Poor and Sick
  • Give structure to society
cathedrals became very important why
Cathedrals became very important. Why?

Showed the Church was center of life

Showed the Church was blessed by God

They were built by the community and became a unifying project.

They were beautiful and displayed local art and sculpture

They gave people a place to feel hope and inspiration

They revealed the power and wealth of the Church

how does architecture change in the middle ages
How does architecture change in the Middle Ages?
  • Style switch from Romanesque to Gothic Style
  • The Gothic style occurs as the Church’s power and wealth increases in the High Middle Ages.
  • Some people see the Gothic style as a symbol of the Church’s extravagance.
romanesque style architecture early middle ages
Romanesque Style ArchitectureEarly Middle Ages

Rounded Arches

Barrel Vaults

Thick Walls

Dark Simple interiors

Small windows

gothic style architecture the high middle ages
Gothic Style ArchitectureThe High Middle Ages

Pointed Arches

High Narrow Vaults

Thinner Walls

Flying Buttresses

Elaborate, Ornate interiors

Stained Glass Windows

pointed arches
Pointed Arches
  • The Arch bore more of the weight than the walls
  • Therefore, the walls could be thinner
  • The roof was higher and the interior was more open

Q: What is a Flying Buttress?

A: A support that connected inner walls to outer towers

Q: Why are they important?

A: They support the walls so they can be higher and thinner

what was on the outside of gothic cathedrals
What was on the outside of Gothic Cathedrals?


Grotesque Monsters


Rain spouts

AND to protect

the Church from


images in the church the use of paintings and stained glass

Q: Why were pictures so important?

A: Most people were illiterate so the Church used images to teach about the Bible, the danger of Hell, and the importance of the Saints.

Images in the ChurchThe Use of Paintings and Stained Glass
stained glass windows
Stained Glass Windows
  • Thinner walls allowed beautiful windows
  • Colors made from plants, shells, dyes mixed into the glass
  • Pictures were from Biblical stories or were about famous leaders and important people from the time

The “Poor Man’s Bible”

window at Canterbury


13th century

review cathedrals
Review: Cathedrals
  • With your table discuss why Cathedrals were so important in the Middle Ages
what is an illumination
What is an illumination?
  • An Embellishment (decoration) added
  • the pages of a manuscript
  • Comes from illuminatewhich means
  • to fill with light.
  • Letters were covered with Gold Leaf which made them appear to glow.
  • Typically the first letter of a page or paragraph
  • Surrounded by plants, flowers, or mythical figures
why were illuminations important
Why were illuminations important?
  • Done by Monks and kept in Cathedrals
  • Often upon request from the King to show importance of document
  • Great beauty and wealth
relics and pilgrimages
Relics and Pilgrimages
  • People travel to see items belonging to Christ or Saints
  • (Wood from the Cross, Bones, Hair, Cloth, Crucifix)
  • Had Special Powers—Healing, Forgiveness
  • Items kept in Churches and Cathedrals
santiago de compostela
Santiago de Compostela
  • Spain
  • Remains of St. James
  • Tomb of Saint Thomas Becket
  • Cloth soaked in his blood
results of pilgrimages
Results of Pilgrimages
  • Growth of Cathedrals and Shrines
  • Growth of Towns
  • Growth of Travel and Tourism
  • Growth of Tolerance
the byzantine empire
The Byzantine Empire
  • Eastern Half of the Roman Empire—split in 330AD
  • Still prospered until1100 while rest of empire broke into European Countries (Dark Ages)
  • Situated between Europe and the Islamic World
  • Capital was Constantinople
  • Christian but Eastern Orthodox, not Roman Catholic. Therefore, not under control of the Pope
what was the problem for the byzantine empire
What was the problem for the Byzantine Empire?

The Seljuk Turks were invading

The Turks restricted pilgrimages to the Holy Land

how do the crusades begin
How do the Crusades Begin?

Byzantines cry HELP!!

Pope Urban II agrees.


Look at the sources on page 195 and see if you can determine all the reasons people responded to the Pope’s request
reasons from the sources
Reasons from the Sources

Help protect your brothers from the evil Muslims

Jerusalem needs to be rescued

Sins would immediately be forgiven

Stop fighting each other, fight the Muslims

Better land and the chance to get rich

other reasons to help the byzantine empire
Other reasons to help the Byzantine Empire
  • Unite Western Europe in a common cause with the Pope as the leader
  • The Holy Land and the Byzantine Empire controlled prosperous trade routes
  • Protect Christendom from the Spread of Islam
  • Eastern Orthodox Church was a rival of the Catholic Church
how did the church convince people to go fight for the first crusade
How did the Church convince people to go fight for the First Crusade?
  • Free from Penance and a sure spot in Heaven
  • Sell it as a ‘Pilgrimage’
  • “God Wills It”
why did people really go
Why did people really go?
  • Religious Reasons
  • To Get Rich
  • To See the World
first crusade christians capture jerusalem
First Crusade: Christians Capture Jerusalem

1. Examine the sources on page 196-197 and see if you

can determine the reasons the Christians were


2. Also, according to the sources, how did many

Christians act on this Crusade?

How believable are all of these sources? For each

source, discuss one reason the report might be biased.

how many crusades are there
How many Crusades are there?
  • 8
  • Christians capture Jerusalem in the 1st, Lose it by the 3rd
  • Set up 4 Crusader States that they rule for awhile
  • Never win anything else
crusade or invasion
Crusade or Invasion?
  • Muslims and Christians did (and some still do) have different opinions about the Crusades. Look at the textbook excerpts on page 200. Answer the 3 questions in the yellow box.
  • Make a prediction: Who benefitted most from the Crusades—the Christians in Europe or the Muslims in the Middle East? What are some ways both cultures might have changed because of 200 years of religious war?
were the muslims and christians fighting for the entire 200 years
Were the Muslims and Christians fighting for the entire 200 years?
  • Look at the sources on page 200 and 201. How did Muslims and Christians live together in the years between the Crusades?
were the crusades good or bad
Were the Crusades good or bad?


  • 1 million Dead
  • Strengthens Religious Intolerance
  • Speeds the end of the Islamic Renaissance
  • Black Death


  • Opens trade
  • Returns knowledge and learning to the West
  • Returns Science and invention to the West
  • Speeds the beginning of Europe’s Renaissance
process of the inquisition
Process of the Inquisition

2. Trial

4. Punishment

1. Investigation

3. Torture