Middle ages church dominance
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MIDDLE AGES …. church dominance. EARLY RENAISSANCE..... Experimentation Heaven to earth centered thought HIGH RENAISSANCE … Creative explosion Domination of Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo Balance, control, reason. RENAISSANCE OF THE NORTH. Protestant Reformation

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MIDDLEAGES….church dominance


  • Experimentation

  • Heaven to earth centered thought


  • Creative explosion

  • Domination of Da Vinci, Raphael, Michelangelo

  • Balance, control, reason

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  • Protestant Reformation

  • Artist as individual (Durer)


  • Academic…imitation

  • Free…original expressions

  • Restless, anxious, distortion, uncertainty, unusual colors

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  • Change…political, scientific, philosophical, artistic

  • Counter-reformation

  • Passion, exuberance, “over-decorated wedding cake”

  • Rubens, Rembrandt

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  • Art for the aristocracy

  • Artificial, frivolous


  • Perfection

  • Controlled by academies

  • Age of Enlightenment


  • Revolutionary

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  • The Truth


  • Experiments with light, color, and atmosphere

  • Advances in technology…portable canvas & paints

  • Monet

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  • First art to concentrate on a psychological perception of reality

  • Differs from other art in that it…

  • Simplifies

  • Omits Details

  • Concentrates on the significance of form

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  • Each of these categories were established by a major artist: Van Gogh, Cezanne, Gauguin

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    Two Peak Periods (from 1886-1905) Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Question before…What does this painting represent?

    • Question now…What does this painting make us feel?

    • “A painting should have more in common with a piece of music than with a photograph”

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    “Minor” Post-Impressionists Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Seurat

    • Toulouse-Latrec

    • Rousseau

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    Self Portrait 1875 Impressionism and Pre-Modern

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    PAUL CEZANNE Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Recluse…perfectionist

    • “Father” of Modern Art

    • Indifferent to “correct” art

    • “the artist’s task is to represent…NOT to reproduce…nature”

    • ….”make of Impressionism something solid”

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    PAUL CEZANNE cont. Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • “….look for the cylinder, the sphere, and the cone”

    • art was a “visual research problem”

    • 1883…”bones of nature”

    • An artist must distort whatever in nature does not fit his/her concept of beauty

    • Cezanne must be studied for a long time

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    PAUL GAUGUIN Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Vocal, flamboyant, recognized

    • Wanted freedom…journeyed around the world in his search…wanted to return to the natural BUT with a modern expression

    • Became recognized as a symbolist and a liberator of color

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    Gauguin cont. Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Gauguin’s art aims at five qualities:

      • Ideational

      • Symbolist

      • Synthesis

      • Subjective

      • Decorative

      • Strong, selfish personality

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    VINCENT VAN GOGH Impressionism and Pre-Modern


    • Ten years of creative activity…completed three phrases:

      • a) August 1880-February 1886

      • b) February 1886-February 1888

      • c) February 1888-July 1890

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    EARLY LIFE Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Father: Minister of a Dutch Reformed Church

    • Van Gogh Family: Art and Religion

    • Brother Theo born 1857

    • Age of 15, first job…

    • Eugenie Loyer

    • Tried teaching

    • Worked in bookshop

    • Studied Theology

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    • Religious work…Belgium Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Returned home

      PHASE I

    • 1880…Studied art

    • 1881…Cousin Kee

    • Hand in flame incident

    • Clasina Maria Hoornik (Sien)

    • 1883…Returned to Parents

    • Margot Begemann

    • Opposition to marriage

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    • 1885…Death of Father Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • First interest in artwork

    • First exhibit in August, 1885

    • Antwerp…Starvation

    • Interest in Japanese woodcuts

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    JAPONISME Impressionism and Pre-ModernCraze for all things Japanese

    1867 … Paris Exposition Universelle

    • Embraced by the public

    • Japanese woodblock prints of particular interest to Impressionists and Post Impressionists

    • 1885 … Van Gogh began collecting Japanese prints

    • 1886 … Bing Gallery next door to Van Gogh’s apartment

    • 1887 … Van Gogh began to paint copies of famous Japanese designs

    • 1888 … Arles work shows influence …

    • Letter to sister …

    • “Theo wrote that he offered you Japanese woodblock prints. That is certainly the best way to understand which direction the light and colorful painting has taken. Here I need no Japanese woodblock prints, because I am here in Japan. This is why I only have to open my eyes and paint the impressions that I receive.”

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    PHASE II Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Moved to Paris

    • Associated with Impressionists

    • November 1887…Met Paul Gauguin

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    PHASE III Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Moved to Arles

    • Utopian art colony

    • October 23…Gauguin arrives in Arles

    • December 23…Rachel incident

    • March 1889…Townspeople petition

    • April 17…Theo marries Johanna Bonger

    • May 8, 1889…Vincent admitted to mental hospital

    • May 1890…Under care of Dr. Paul Gachet

    • July 27, 1890…Age of 37…shot himself

    • January 25…Death of Theo

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    Legacy Impressionism and Pre-Modern

    • Don McLean’s song “Vincent”

    • Anne Sexton poem “Starry Night”