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Chapter 4. Plants 5 th Grade Science. Plants. Plants make their own _____. This process is called ___________ and takes place in their __________. Leaves are _______ made of _____ and _________. Layers of similar _______ make up the _______ in the leaf.

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chapter 4

Chapter 4

Plants

5th Grade Science

plants
Plants
  • Plants make their own _____. This process is called ___________ and takes place in their __________.
  • Leaves are _______ made of _____ and _________.
  • Layers of similar _______ make up the _______ in the leaf.
  • Plant tissues are very similar to animal tissues.

food

photosynthesis

leaves

cells

organs

tissues

cells

tissues

photosynthesis
Photosynthesis
  • _______________ is the process that plants use to make sugar for food.
  • Photosynthesis happens in the ___________ which are located in plant cells.
  • In photosynthesis ____________ and ________ are used to make _________ and ____________.
  • ___________ supplies the energy needed for photosynthesis.

Photosynthesis

chloroplasts

Carbon dioxide

water

sugar

oxygen

Sunlight

chemical equation for photosynthesis
Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis
  • Carbon dioxide + water → oxygen + sugar
  • The plant gets water from the _______ and carbon dioxide through the ________ which are small pores on the underside of leaves.
  • Once the plant makes the sugar it is transported to all of the ______ in the plants including the roots.

soil

stomata

cells

sugar
Sugar
  • Plants use some of the sugar immediately as _______ to continue the process of ____________ during the day.
  • Some sugar is _______ to use at night.
  • Thousands of sugars combine in plant cells to form ________.
  • ________ is a chemical that makes up the strong _______ of plants.

energy

photosynthesis

stored

cellulose

Cellulose

Cell walls

chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
  • Inside of the chloroplasts are structures that look like plates called __________.
  • Chlorophyll contains a ________ that gives the plant its color.
  • The function of the chlorophyll is to absorb _________from the sun in the chloroplast.
  • __________ gives the cell energy to make sugar from ___________ and ________.

chlorophyll

pigment

energy

Sunlight

Carbon dioxide

water

stems
Stems
  • Stems provide ________ for the plant and hold the leaves and flowers.
  • __________ plants have stems have a transport system just like the _____________ in the human body.
  • The tissues in plant stems that transport materials are __________ and ________.

support

Vascular

Circulatory system

xylem

phloem

xylem and phloem
Xylem and Phloem
  • ________ - are tissues that carry materials from the roots to the leaves.
    • The _______ soak up the water from the soil.

_______ - are tissues in the shape of tubes that carry sugar away from the leaves.

-The sugar from plants is dissolved in _______.

-In trees, phloem is made below the ____. Dead phloem makes the bark.

Xylem

roots

Phloem

water

bark

roots
Roots
  • ___________ - anchor the plant into the ground and hold it in place as it grows.
  • Root systems:
    • ___________ - a large root that grows straight down. Taproots may store _______ for the plant. Small roots may grow sideways out of the main taproot.
    • ________________ - many roots grow out in all directions.

Roots

Taproot

food

Fibrous root systems

root tip
Root Tip
  • Roots grow longer because of special _________ near the root tip.
  • At the __________, cells quickly divide and form new cells.
  • The new ______ push the root further into the ground.
  • Roots also _______ water for the plant.

tissues

Root Tip

cells

absorb

functions of roots
Functions of Roots
  • Roots _________ a plant and may _______ food.
  • Roots absorb ______ and ________ or ___________ from the soil.
  • The materials that are taken in from the soil are used in the processes of ___________, ________, ____________, and ____________

anchor

store

water

minerals

nutrients

photosynthesis

growth

maintenance

reproduction

parts of a flower
Parts of a Flower
  • _______ - male part of a flower
  • __________ - a grainy yellow powder is made in the stamen.
  • A single flower may have many_________.
  • ________ - female part of a flower.
  • _______ often has a wide bottom an a narrow neck
  • A single flower may have more than one ____.

stamen

pollen

stamens

pistil

pistil

pistil

flowers
Flowers
  • _______________ - do not have both a stamen and a pistil.
  • _______________ - flowers with both male and female parts.
  • _______________ - one flower unit is made up of hundreds of tiny flowers
  • ________ - the moving of pollen from the stamen to the pistil.
    • ____________ - can involve the stamen and pistil of the same plant or two different plants

Imperfect Flowers

Perfect Flowers

Composite Flowers

Pollination

Pollination

pollination
Pollination
  • Pollination takes place in different ways.
  • _______ or ______ can move pollen.
  • ________, _____, or ________ moving from plant to plant can transport pollen.
  • Some plant species are only pollinated in one way while others can be pollinated in different ways.

wind

water

insects

bats

birds

pollination of a pea plant
Pollination of a Pea Plant
  • 1. Pollen sticks to the _________ at the end of the ________.
  • 2. Pollen tubes grow down the _______ to the __________.
  • 3. _________ from the pollen move down the tubes.
  • 4. ___________ combines the DNA of both plants

pollen

pistil

pistil

Egg cell

Sperm

Fertilization

seeds
Seeds
  • A seed is made of three main parts:
    • ____________
    • ____________
    • ____________

The __________ is a covering that protects the new plant and stores food.

The __________ is the new plant contained in the seed coat.

The __________ is a stash of food stored in the seed coat

Seed coat

embryo

endosperm

Seed coat

embryo

endosperm

monocots dicots
Monocots / Dicots
  • An _________ has structures called _________ or __________.
  • ___________ - seeds that have one cotyledon – example: corn
  • __________ - seeds that have more than one cotyledon – example: beans

embryo

Seed leaves

cotyledons

Monocots

Dicots

spreading seeds
Spreading Seeds
  • Some plants ______ their seeds on the ground and the seeds begin to grow.
  • _________ are helpful in scattering seeds.
  • The seeds of berries pass through the _______________ of animals and are eliminated as waste.
  • Outside conditions such as _________ and __________ must be right before the plant can begin to grow.

drop

animals

Digestive system

temperature

moisture

spores
Spores
  • __________ and ________ are plants that do not produce flowers.
  • The life cycle of these plant have _______:
    • ____________
    • ____________- fern and mosses use _______ to reproduce.

A plant ________ is a single plant cell that can develop into a new plant.

mosses

ferns

Two parts

fertilization

reproduction

spores

spore

differences between spores and seeds
Differences between spores and seeds
  • Spores do not have a multicellular _________
  • Spores are not made by __________
  • Both spores and seeds have____________
  • Reproducing without sperm cells and egg cells:
    • _________ reproduction – there is only one parent
    • The offspring are identical to the parent
    • ___________ and ____________

embryo

fertilization

Stored food

Asexual

Runners

Budding

runners and budding
Runners and Budding
  • ________- growing new plants from stems or roots of the plant. Example: strawberries
  • __________- buds form on the plant and drop off to grow as separate plants.

Runners

Budding

how do plants grow
How Do Plants Grow?
  • A plants growth depends on ______ and its ___________ conditions
  • ____________ - when a seed sprouts
  • _______ will grow out of a seed __________
  • ________ will grow out of a seed _________
  • _________ - genetic information that instructs the plant on how to grow and in what conditions

DNA

Environmental

Germination

roots

downward

stems

upward

DNA

tropisms
Tropisms
  • ___________ - ways in which the plant changes direction to get what it needs
  • Tropisms often occur when the ___________ conditions change.
  • _____will grow faster on one side of the plant causing the plant to bend in a certain direction.
  • _____________ - kind of chemical that affects plant growth.

Tropisms

environmental

cells

Growth hormone

growth hormone in plants
Growth Hormone in Plants
  • Growth hormones in plants cause more cells to grow in the plant.
  • The hormone may make the plant grow larger
  • Plants make their own growth hormone.