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  1. Sensation & Perception PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation CHAPTER 4 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  2. Lecture Overview • Understanding Sensation • How We See & Hear • Our Other Senses • Understanding Perception ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  3. Introduction to Sensation & Perception • Sensation:process of detecting, converting, & transmitting raw sensory information from the external & internal environments to the brain • Perception:process of selecting, organizing, & interpreting sensory information into meaningful patterns ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  4. What is the top, bottom, or back of this cube? Is this a young woman looking over her right shoulder, or an older woman looking downward? When viewing these figures, your visual sensory system receives an assortment of light waves = sensation. Interpreting the lines as a cube or an old/young woman = perception. Sensation Vs. Perception ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  5. Sensation Vs. Perception ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  6. Processing:Ourfive senses (vision, audition, etc.) have special receptors (e.g., eye’s rods & cones), which detect & transmit sensory information Understanding Sensation: Processing ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  7. Understanding Sensation: Processing • Bottom-Up Processing: information processing beginning “at the bottom” with raw sensory data” sent “up” to the brain for higher-level analysis • Top-Down Processing: information processing starting “at the top” with higher-level processes and then working down ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  8. Understanding Sensation: Processing Four Forms of Processing: • Sensory detection:eyes, ears, other sense organs contain receptor cells that detect & process sensory information • Transduction:converts receptor’s energy into neural impulses that are sent on to the brain • Coding: converting sensory inputs into different sensations • Sensory Reduction: filtering and analyzing incoming sensations before sending neural messages on to the cortex ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  9. Neural impulses from sensory receptors in our eyes, ears, skin, & other sensory organs create neural messages sent to various areas of our brain. Understanding Sensation: Processing (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  10. Understanding Sensation: Thresholds • Psychophysics:studies the link between physical characteristics of stimuli and our sensory experience • Absolute Threshold: smallest amount of a stimulus we can reliably detect • Difference Threshold: minimal difference needed to detect a stimulus change; also called the “just noticeable difference” (JND) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  11. Understanding Sensation: Thresholds ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  12. Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work • Subliminalperceptionmay occur, but there is little or no evidence ofsubliminal persuasion. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  13. Sensory Adaptation: decreased sensitivity due to repeated or constant stimulation Understanding Sensation ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  14. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • Smokers generally fail to notice that their hair & clothing often smell like smoke. This may be because of _____. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  15. How We See: Vision • Light is a form of electromagnetic energy that moves in waves. • Various types of electromagnetic waves form the electromagnetic spectrum. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  16. How We See: Light Waves ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  17. How We See:Light Waves • Wavelength: distance between the crests (or peaks) • Frequency: how often a light or sound wave cycles • Amplitude: height of a light or sound wave ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  18. How We See: Electromagnetic Spectrum ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  19. The flower on the left is what we normally see. The one on the right, photographed under ultraviolet light, is what we think most animals & insects see. How We See:Electromagnetic Spectrum ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  20. How We See:Anatomy of the Eye • The function of the eye is to capture light waves & focus them on receptors at the back of the eyeball. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  21. How We See:Structures of the Retina • Receptors for vision are the rods& coneslocated in the retina. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

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  24. Do You Have a Blind Spot? • (Everyone does! Close your right eye & stare at the X with your left eye, & then slowly move your head toward the screen. The worm will disappear!) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  25. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • Enter the correct label on each line, & then compare your answers with Process Diagram 4.1 p. 137. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  26. Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work • Vision research helps explain how the shape of your eyeball creates two common visual problems--nearsightedness& farsightedness. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  27. Color visionis a combination of two theories Trichromatic Theory:color perception results from three types of cones in the retina, each most sensitive to either red, green, or blue How We See:Theories ofColor Vision ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  28. How We See:Theories ofColor Vision (Continued) • Opponent-Process Theory:color perception results from three systems of color opposites (blue-yellow, red-green, & black-white) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  29. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • Stare at the dot in the middle of the flag for 60 seconds. Then look at a white surface. You’ll see a regular red, white, & blue U.S. flag, known as a negative afterimage. Can you explain how this is related to the opponent-process theory? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  30. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • Click on the photo of the spiral to the right and follow the directions on the website. How does the opponent-process theory help explain the effects of this aptly named “spiral illusion”? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  31. Are you “color blind”? People who have red-green color deficiency have trouble perceiving the green colored number in the center of this circle. How We See:Color-Deficient Vision ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  32. How We Hear: Audition • Soundresults from movement of air molecules in a particular wave pattern. • Sound waves vary in: • wavelength, which determines pitch (highness or lowness). • amplitude, which determines loudness (intensity of the sound). ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  33. How We Hear: EarAnatomy • Outer Ear (gold color) = pinna, auditory canal, & eardrum • Middle Ear (blue color) = hammer, anvil, & stirrup • Inner Ear (pinkish color) cochlea, semicircular canals, & vestibular sacs • Cochlea contains key receptors for hearing ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

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  35. How We Hear:Theories of Pitch Perception • Place Theory: pitch perception is linked to the particular spot on the cochlea’s basilar membrane that is most stimulated • Frequency Theory: pitch perception occurs when nerve impulses sent to the brain match the frequency of the sound wave ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  36. How We Hear: Audition • The loudness of a sound is measured in decibels. Constant noise above 90 decibels can cause permanent nerve damage & irreversible hearing loss. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  37. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • Enter the correct label on each line & then compare your answers with Process Diagram 4.2 p. 142 ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  38. Our Other Senses • Olfaction: sense of smell • Receptors for smell are embedded in the nasal membrane (the olfactory epithelium). ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  39. Pause & Reflect: Assessment • Enter the correct labels & then compare your answers with Process Diagram 4.3 p. 147. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  40. Our Other Senses:Gustation (Sense of Taste) • Receptors for taste (or gustation) are taste buds, located in papillae on the surface of the tongue. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  41. Skin sensesinvolvethree skin sensations-- touch(or pressure),temperature,& pain. Receptors for these sensations occur in various concentrations & depths in the skin. Our Other Senses:Three Body Senses ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  42. Vestibular sense (or sense of balance) involves the vestibular sacs & semicircular canals located within the inner ear. Three Body Senses (Continued) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  43. Three Body Senses (Continued) • Kinesthesia provides our brains with information about posture, orientation, & movement. • Kinesthetic receptors are located in muscles, joints, & tendons. ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  44. Understanding Perception • Illusion:false or misleading perception that helps scientists study the processes of perception • The horizontal-vertical illusion Which line is longer? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  45. The Muller-Lyer Illusion Which vertical line is longer? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  46. Understanding Perception Do you see the cow? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  47. Understanding Perception Now can you see the cow? ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  48. Understanding Perception • Perception’s three basic processes: • Selection • Organization • Interpretation ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  49. Understanding Perception: Selection • Selection (choosing where to direct attention) involves: • Selective Attention(filtering out & attending only to important sensory messages) • Feature Detectors(specialized neurons that respond only to certain sensory information) • Habituation(brain’s tendency to ignore environmental factors that remain constant) ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

  50. Kittens reared in an environment having only vertical lines are later unable to detect horizontal lines. Can you explain why? Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking ©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010