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The Northeast TodayChapter 5 Social Studies Grade 4 Mrs. Susko
Vocabulary for Lesson 1 Specialize – people who do one kind of job well Candidate – people who run for office in elections Campaign – a series of actions, such as running advertisements on television, displaying signs, and talking with voters, taken with the goal of getting someone elected to office Ballot – a sheet of paper on which votes are marked or another method (electronic) used to record votes Volunteer – a person who works for no pay
New England States • New England is one of two smaller regions that make up the Northeast. New England includes Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Vermont.
Cities and Towns • Most New Englanders live in cities along the Atlantic coast. Boston, Massachusetts, is the region’s biggest city by far. Other large cities in New include Providence, Rhode Island, and Hartford, Connecticut. Small towns are scattered all across New England. Many have a town common, surrounded by small stores, homes, and old churches. Boston, Massachusetts
People of New England • Many places in New England were founded in colonial period. New Englanders take great pride in their colonial history. They preserve historic sites so that important events, people, and place will not be forgotten. Above – Colonial Massachusetts Signing the Mayflower Compact
Robert Frost • New England’s history and beauty have inspired many artists. Robert Frost wrote poems about the region’s peaceful countryside. Winslow Homer painted scenes of the rocky coastline of Maine. While Norman Rockwell painted scenes of life in small towns, Louisa May Alcott described growing up in one in her novel Little Women. Norman Rockwell’s painting
The Economy Today • Shipping and fishing have long been important industries in New England. After all, every New England state, except Vermont, borders the ocean. Portland, Maine, handles more goods than any other port in the region. Portland, Maine
New England was once the nation’s manufacturing center. • During the past 50 years, however, many textile mills and other factories have moved. • They have moved to places where their products can be made more cheaply. • New factories have opened in New England. • They make computer parts, scientific equipment, and other products. • These factories need workers who specialize. • People who specialize do one kind of job well.
Education – Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts, help students specialize in computers and science. Video on the Lowell girls from Lowell, Massachusetts http://www.hulu.com/watch/60235/a-celebration-of-womens-history-the-lowell-girls
Citizenship • Town meetings have been a part of life in New England since colonial times. • At town meetings, citizens gather to discuss and vote on important community issues.
Voting is the foundation of our nation’s democracy. • It gives people the power to rule. • Citizens use this power when they vote to elect their local, state, and national leaders. • The people who run for office in elections are called candidates. • Before an election, most candidates carry out campaigns to encourage people to vote. • They display signs, make speeches, and talk to voters. • They may advertise on television and set up Internet sites.
On election day, the names of all the candidates for each office are listed on a ballot. • A ballot is either a sheet of paper on which votes are marked or another method used to record votes. • As in all regions, people in New England help their communities by being volunteers. • A volunteer is a person who works for not pay. • Some volunteers clean up litter or work in hospitals. • In some small towns, even the elected leaders are volunteers. • Why is voting important?
Global Connection • Many early European settlers in New England came from England. • They named many New England towns and cities after places in England. • For example, Hartford, Connecticut was named after Herford, England. • Today, these two cities are “sister cities”. • They offer youth and teacher exchange programs, and they hold celebrations. • What is one effect that English settlers have had on the United States?
Global Connection – Sister Cities Hertford, England Hartford, Connecticut
Summary Questions What features of life in New England today came from the region’s past? Where do most people in New England live? • New England has big cities and small historic towns. Most people in the region work in service industries. Like all United States citizens, people in New England elect their leaders and vote to make decisions. Old State House in Hartford, Connecticut
Vocabulary for Lesson 2 • Skyscraper – very tall buildings in cities • Commute – to travel back forth between work and home • Urban Sprawl – the growth of cities • Pollution – anything that makes a natural resource dirty or unsafe to use
New York City Lesson 2 – Middle Atlantic States • The Middle Atlantic States are Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. • This region has many big cities. • In fact, New York City is the largest city in the United States. • The former mayor of New York City, Rudolph Giuliani, once said, “We are a city of immigrants.” • He meant that people from all over the world have made their home in New York City.
A Global City • New York is a world-famous center for the arts. • Residents and visitors enjoy museums, Broadway shows, and concerts. • Groups such as the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater train dancers and perform worldwide. American Museum of Natural History, NYC
New York City is a global center for business, too. • It is a leader in banking, publishing, fashion, entertainment, and other industries. • Many industries fill the city’s skyscrapers, or very tall buildings. • On September 11th, 2001, two of the city’s tallest skyscrapers were destroyed in attacks. • These were part of the World Trade Center. • Another skyscraper in the city is the headquarters of the United Nations, or UN.
Representatives from nearly every nation gather there. They help member nations work together to solve problems ranging from hunger to war. Security Council at the United Nations at work United Nations in New York City
City Life • New York City is not the only big city in the Middle Atlantic states. • About four out of five people in the region live in urban areas. • Philadelphia and Pittsburg are two major cities in Pennsylvania. • Philadelphia is a center of culture, education, and publishing. Above – Philadelphia skyline Below – University of Pennsylvania Hospital
Pittsburgh has a long history as a steelmaking center. • However, today, only one major steel mill operates in the city. • Medical research is a newer, growing industry there. • South of Philadelphia is Wilmington, the largest city in Delaware. • Many big companies have headquarters there. Above – Pittsburgh, PA Below – Wilmington, DE
Newark is the largest city in New Jersey. • It has a central location, highways, a port, and an international airport. • These make Newark a transportation center for the region.
Growth and Services • In the past, workers needed to live close to where they worked. • Because transportation has improved, people can live farther from work. • Many people live in the suburbs and commute, or travel back and forth between work and home. • As a result, metropolitan areas have grown larger. • New businesses, houses, and shopping centers have grown up around cities. • This spreading of urban areas is called urban sprawl.
Living in cities comes with both problems and benefits. • Overcrowding can cause many problems. It can make housing hard to find and expensive. • It can cause traffic jams and pollution. • Pollution is anything that makes a natural resource dirty or unsafe to use. • To help reduce traffic and pollution, most cities have public transportation, such as buses, trains, and subways. • The benefits of living in cities include access to work, cultural, and educational opportunities. • City governments provide their citizens with many services. • They provide water, electricity, schools, police protection, and trash removal. • They keep streets, bridges, sewers, and pipes repaired. • To provide these services, city governments hire many workers. This costs a lot of money. As a result, most cities have higher taxes than rural areas have.
Places to Visit • Many people who live in cities enjoy getting away from them now and then. Some places in the Middle Atlantic states are favorites for city dwellers. Long Beach Island, NJ
Upstate New York • Many New Yorkers divide their state into two parts. “The city” is the area around New York City. “Upstate” is the rest of the state. • The largest state park in the United States is Adirondack State Park, in upstate New York. It has 6 million acres and includes the western shore of Lake Champlain. Visitors to the park can canoe, hike, ski, ice-skate, and even dogsled! Adirondack State Park, NY
The Jersey Shore • The Jersey Shore is a 127-mile-long area of beaches. • It has amusement parks and other attractions along the New Jersey coast. • In the summer, millions of people from nearby cities go to the Jersey Shore to have fun. Above – Ocean City, NJ Below – Wildwood, NJ
Pennsylvania Dutch Country • The Pennsylvania Dutch Country, in the southeastern part of the state, is known for its communities of Amish and Mennonite farmers. • Because of their religious beliefs, these groups live simply. Many wear plain clothing, do not use electricity, and travel by horse and buggy.
Global Connection • Countries all over the world face challenges by urban growth and urban sprawl. • Many workers in Tokyo, Japan’s capital, commute long distances to and from work. • These workers have found clever ways to deal with the long commute. Tokyo, Japan
Some rent sleeping capsules in the city during the week. • Others commute by high-speed trains called bullet trains. • Once in the city, about 10 million people use Tokyo’s trains and subways each day. Above – Sleeping Capsules Below – Tokyo Speed Trains
Chapter 5 Review - Vocabulary • A person who runs for office in an election • To do one kinds of job well • To travel back and forth between work and home • A person who works for no pay • The spread of urban areas • Anything that makes a natural resource dirty or unsafe to use • A very tall building • A method used to record votes • Specialize • Candidate • Ballot • Volunteer • Skyscraper • Commute • Urban Sprawl • Pollution
Chapter 5 Questions • Which states are the New England states? • Why have some factories moved from New England to other places? • Which states are the Middle Atlantic states? • Why is Newark, NJ, considered a transportation center for the Northeast? • Which New England state has no coastline? • Which person said that New York City is a “city of immigrants”? • Which is the largest city in the United States?
References • All written material was taken from the Harcourt Social Studies – States and Regions book, 2010 edition. • Pictures and links to videos were taken from searches on Google Images and Videos.