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Lipids: Protecting Your Heart. A Presentation. Three Categories of Lipids. Triglycerides Largest Class of Lipids Fats and Oils Phospholipids Dissolve in both fat and water Used in emulsifiers (Mayonnaise) Eggs and Peanuts Sterols Cholesterol Perform vital functions Video.

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Presentation Transcript
three categories of lipids
Three Categories of Lipids

Triglycerides

  • Largest Class of Lipids
  • Fats and Oils

Phospholipids

  • Dissolve in both fat and water
  • Used in emulsifiers (Mayonnaise)
  • Eggs and Peanuts

Sterols

  • Cholesterol
  • Perform vital functions Video
triglycerides
Triglycerides

Function:

  • Fuel the body and keep it warm
  • Maintain a constant body temperature
  • Protects organs
  • Transports vitamins
  • Healthy skin and hair

Video

Adipose Tissue:

  • Pockets of fat-storing cells
  • Provide insulation

Picture taken from Medicine World

structure of triglycerides
Structure of Triglycerides

TRI - Three Fatty Acids react with Glycerol, an alcohol

Fatty Acids – Organic acids

Carboxyl Group – Carbon bonded to oxygen by a double covalent bond, and to a hydroxyl group with a single bond

Picture taken from Antranik.org

linoleic and linolenic acid
Linoleic and Linolenic Acid
  • Fatty Acids
  • Not produced by the human body
  • Needed for normal growth and development

Sources:

Vegetables, Grains, Nuts, Seeds, Soybeans

saturated vs unsaturated
Saturated vs. Unsaturated

Saturated

Unsaturated

Incomplete Fatty Acid

Missing hydrogen atoms

Monounsaturated Fat:

Lacks 2 hydrogen atoms

Polyunsaturated Fat:

Lacks 4 or more hydrogen atoms

  • Complete Fatty Acid
  • Each fatty acid contains all the hydrogen atoms their molecular structure can hold

Video

energy source
Energy Source
  • Supply over twice the energy of glucose (carbohydrates)
  • If you consume too much, it’s stored in the body as fat.
  • Doesn’t offer “Quick” energy
solid vs liquid fats
Solid vs. Liquid Fats

Animal Fats “Saturated”

  • Full-set of hydrogen and carbon atoms are tightly packed, creating a solid
  • Solid at Room Temp.

Plant Oils “Unsaturated”

  • Less compact because of missing hydrogen atoms
  • Liquid at Room Temp.

Exceptions:

Coconut Oil – Solid

Palm Kernel Oil – Solid

(80% saturated)

melting range of fats
Melting Range of Fats
  • Saturation affects range
  • Some fats are in liquid phase and some are solid – creating a soft butter at room temperature
  • The more carbon in a fatty acid, the higher the melting point.

Saturated Fats – high melting point

Unsaturated Fats – low melting point

Picture taken from Always Foodie

functions of fat in cooking
Functions of Fat in Cooking

Tenderizing – Tenderize baked goods, creating flaky pastries, and moist cakes

Aeration – Add air to butter and dough by forming a bubble around the molecules and trapping air

Emulsions – Oils are used in the liquid phase, such as mayonnaise.

Flavor – Fats dissolve aromatic molecules in foods

Oxidation – When exposed to oxygen, fats oxidize or “break-down” causing high-fat foods to spoil

controlling oxidation
Controlling Oxidation

Unsaturated Fats are more prone to Oxidation

Heat speeds up Oxidation

Cooling and Freezing slows the process of Oxidation

Picture taken from Artinaid

slowing oxidation
Slowing Oxidation
  • Potato chips are packaged in pure nitrogen
  • Bacon is vacuum-sealed
  • Oils are bottled in dark glass
  • Dried-foods, lacking water molecules, are packaged with antioxidants – substances that help prevent oxidation
  • Picture taken from PelletSmoking and AnvakoTrade
hydrogenated oils trans fats
Hydrogenated Oils “Trans Fats”

Hydrogenization– A chemical process in which hydrogen is added to unsaturated fat molecules, breaking double bonds and replacing them with single bonds

Picture taken from Health.com

trans fats
Trans Fats

Why is this done?

  • Resists rancidity
  • Takes longer to stale

What changes?

  • Liquid oil changes to a spreadable,

semisolid fat

Examples:

  • Shortening, Partially Hydrogenated Oil
  • Picture taken from losethestomachfat.com
frying fats
Frying Fats

Cracking – the deterioration of fat causing discolored oil and off flavors and odors

Smoke Point – the temp. at which fat produces smoke

Why does fat splatter? Water and oil don’t mix - when food is added to frying oil, the fat “flees” from the water.

Picture taken from Food52.com

digestion of fats
Digestion of Fats

Fats are broken down into……..

>Fatty Acids and Glycerol

>Absorbed by Villi in the Small Intestine

>Stored in the Liver as Glycogen or left as fat

>Leftover fats is sent to Adipose Tissue

RDA – 65 g total fat

20 g saturated fat

Picture taken from ExperienceLife.com

cholesterol
Cholesterol
  • Vital in producing Vitamin D
  • Strengthens cell membranes
  • The liver makes all it needs

Dietary Cholesterol

  • Found only in animal products
  • Useless
  • Possibly harmful

Dr. Oz Video slo-niacin.com

atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis

Hardening of the Arteries due to a build-up of plaque

Cholesteroladvice.net

cholesterol1
Cholesterol

Low Density Lipoprotein

(LDL)

High Density Lipoprotein

(HDL)

*Good* Cholesterol

Higher in protein than lipids

Returns cholesterol to the liver for breakdown and disposal

A low level increases risk

*Bad* Cholesterol

Carries about 75% of cholesterol in the blood

Transports cholesterol from the liver to other tissues

A high level increases risk

lipoproteins
Lipoproteins

Lipoprotein –

complex molecules

of lipids and protein

that carry lipids

in the blood

LDL and HDL

Picture taken from smc.edu

omega 3 fatty acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Benefits?

They make it more difficult for plaque to form or clump

They make plaque less sticky

Health Central

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