Norman and Medieval England. Everything you’ve ever wanted to know!. Norman England: 1066-1154. King Harold was defeated by William the Conqueror in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings. William – from Normandy, France Significance - first time England was unified. William established….
Norman and Medieval England Everything you’ve ever wanted to know!
Norman England: 1066-1154 • King Harold was defeated by William the Conqueror in 1066 at the Battle of Hastings. • William – from Normandy, France • Significance - first time England was unified
William established… Feudalism: a system of land ownership based on service to the king. Created a strict social stratification that was pyramid shaped William redistributed the land. What belonged to 5000 Anglo-Saxons he claimed for himself and the few men who swore allegiance to him.
Domesday Book A survey conducted by William’s soldiers of all of England — every acre of land and every bit of livestock was recorded, and he claimed ownership of it all.
Kings who followed • William Rufus (son of William the Conqueror) • Henry I (Rufus’ son) • Stephen (grandson of William and put into place by the church)
The Middle Ages: 1154-1377 • Begins with the reign of Henry II • Strong king with plans to gain control from the Church that Stephen let slip away
Henry II • First of the Plantagenet family • Brilliant, strong king • Reign marked by power struggle with the church – this took many forms… • a change in the justice system • his relationship with his best friend, Thomas Becket
Henry II is also remembered for… • His friendship and conflict with Thomas Becket
They started out as friends… • Thomas wasan Anglo-Saxon who found power in the Catholic Church. • Thomas Becket became Henry’s most loyal subject and his greatest friend, and he was ultimately named Chancellor of England.
Things changed when… • Henry decided the best way to gain control over the Catholic Church was to name Thomas to the position of Archbishop of Canterbury.
This created all sorts of trouble • Thomas underwent a religious conversion • He then opposed Henry • Opposed Henry on the rights of Church vs. King’s rights, especially in regard to the trial of clergy for civil crimes • “Will no one rid me of this tiresome priest?”
Saint Thomas • Henry II petitioned Rome to name Thomas a saint. • Miracles began to occur at the site of his murder. • The pilgrimage to Canterbury Cathedral became the most prestigious pilgrimage a person could take.
Canterbury Cathedral The BEST pilgrimage in England due to the martyrdom of Thomas Becket
The Nave Notice the towering arches give impression of great height
Inside the cathedral Imagine you are a poor serf – what would you think of this?
A view of the back of the Cathedral Again, the size alone is impressive even to today’s standards.
The Miracles of Thomas Becket • “The miracles began immediately after his death. The blood from his head wounds, which formed a pool on the stone floor, was soaked up by the cloth rags that several of the laity present in the cathedral had. One man took his home to his sick wife, who was instantly cured. Similar reports of cures followed in the next few days, involving predominantly poor and sick local women. Becket’s blood touched the cloth, imbuing it with his saintly powers. Later, the blood would be watered down so much that the water contained the merest hint of a drop of blood in it, and sold to the pilgrims.”
Medieval cultural notes… • Knights, Crusades, Chivalry, Women and Medicine
Barons, Knights and Serfs • Oaths of feudal loyalty, of faithfulness and loyalty, were sworn by a vassal (knight) to his lord (Baron). • Pledges were often made over religious relics or with the vassal’s hands between those of his Baron. • They’d seal the pledge with a kiss. • The lord provided his serfs with land, simple housing, and protection. • The serf paid for these things by working the lord’s lands and by providing the lord with a portion of whatever they grew. • Serfs were different from slaves in that they were not owned, but couldn’t leave without permission.
From boy to knight… • Not every boy could become a knight; the parents had to be wealthy enough to purchase armor, weapons, horse(s), and servants. • Education began at age 7 as a page; pages learned manners, singing, dancing, and how to use shield and sword. • At age 14, pages could become squires (personal servants to knights).
The Crusades • Wars waged by European Christians against Muslims to control the Holy Land • Capture of rich Islamic cities like Baghdad and Cairo exposed Crusaders to cultures much more sophisticated than their own
Knights and Chivalry • Chivalry was a complete code of conduct that provided rules to control a lawless knight. • The knight’s first obligation was to defend his lord, his king, and his faith. • There were rules of warfare, like never attacking an unarmed opponent. • The code also covered how to treat a lady, how to help others, and how to resist the urge to run from danger.
Chivalry and Courtly Love • Adoring a particular lady, not necessarily one’s wife, was a means of achieving self-improvement. • Revering and acting in the name of a lady would make a knight more brave. • Courtly love was nonsexual — the knight would glorify his lady in words and wear her colors in battle, but she remained pure and out of reach. • A Knight's Tale • Gave rise to new literary form– the Romance • Did little though improve lives of women.
Women in the middle ages • A quote about women written in the 15th century sums it up nicely: • “A woman is a worthy wight / She serveth a man both daye and nyght / Thereto she putteth all her might.”
Women’s roles Even though women could become nuns, the Catholic Church also diminished women’s status by reclaiming convents that had been supported and run by women in earlier times. • Valued only in regard to the land she brought to marriage • Social standings depended on father’s or husband’s status • Had no political rights • Limited choices — wife or nun
Medicine in the Middle Ages • The four humors – bodily fluids that needed to be in the correct proportion in order to maintain health • Black bile (depression and delusions) • Yellow bile or choler (unkindness and instability) • Phlegm (sloth, obesity, hairless skin) • Blood (too much caused heart attacks and sensuality)
Richard the Lion Hearted • 1189-1199 • Spent little time in England • Viewed the royal treasury as a personal source of revenue • Died without an heir
John 1189-1199 • Second son of Henry II • Selfish ruler • Magna Carta
The next Kings • Henry III (1216-1272) • Became King at age 9 • Weak and untrustworthy • Edward I (1272-1307) • Called the first parliament • Edward II (1307-1327) • Edward I’s biggest failure
Edward III and England in 1300s • Edward III (1327-1377) • 100 Years War • Hundred Years War • Early battles • Joan of Arc • After this, Plantagenet dynasty ends and the Tudor dynasty begins.
Changes in England • Social structure changes and so does political structure • New weapons: cannon and crossbow • Means less reliance on Knight • Black Death—the plague • Killed 40% population • Decreased population of feudal Barons • Decreased control of Church