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ANGLO-NORMAN ENGLAND. CHANGE AND CONTINUITY. THE ECONOMY. Be aware of pre-existing economic trends Expanding economies and populations Towns,markets,trade and use of money all growing NORMAN CONQUEST HAD A SHORT TERM NEGATIVE IMPACT as revealed by Domesday 100s of towns ‘wasted’.

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anglo norman england

ANGLO-NORMAN ENGLAND

CHANGE AND CONTINUITY

the economy
THE ECONOMY
  • Be aware of pre-existing economic trends
  • Expanding economies and populations
  • Towns,markets,trade and use of money all growing
  • NORMAN CONQUEST HAD A SHORT TERM NEGATIVE IMPACT as revealed by Domesday
  • 100s of towns ‘wasted’
b ounce back
BOUNCE BACK
  • Quick recovery
  • England fits into general European trend
  • Having devastated the economy, the Normans helped rebuild it
  • 21 new towns between 1066 and 1100
  • Another 19 before 1130
  • Norman building projects such as Cathedrals
  • Squeezing the peasants ( led to increase in productivity)
class relations
CLASS RELATIONS
  • Impact on Commoners varied – initial plunder, forest laws, etc
  • Increased rents and build up of demesnes
  • Standing of freemen and sokemen declined
  • However, hastened demise of slaveholding. 25% decline in Essex noted in Domesday
  • But, hardening of line between free peasant and villani (villeins)
town dwellers
TOWN DWELLERS
  • Treated reasonably well ( London guaranteed traditional rights)
  • New French immigrants
  • French influence (mayors etc)
  • Introduction of Jewish community
  • MARKED CHANGE IN THE SOCIAL AND LEGAL STRUCTURE BY NORMANS DESPITE LIMITED ECONOMIC IMPACT
the aristocracy
THE ARISTOCRACY
  • Shift toward primogeniture
  • Shift from aristocratic clans to lineages (adoption of surnames – Golden Testicles)
  • Opened England to the developing ethos of chivalry
  • CHANGES IN ARISTOCRATIC SOCIETY IMPORTANT BECAUSE, DESPITE BEING A SMALL MINORITY, SO MUCH POWER AND INFLUENCE WAS HELD IN THEIR HANDS
religion and the church
Religion and the Church
  • Church was source of power through its lands and influence
  • Normans replaced Church leadership with foreigners
  • Lesser figures left in place (little military threat)
  • The Church was a conduit for foreign influence but also bastion of English culture!
  • Institution in which Saxon and Norman culture intermingled
church wealth
Church Wealth
  • Normans seized land and wealth of church
  • Abingdon’s loss of 9,600 silver coins worth of assets
  • Stripping of statues at Ely
  • Waltham Abbey stripped of 10,000 marks worth of treasure
  • Church officials forced to melt down items to meet Norman taxes and demands
robbing peter to pay paul
Robbing Peter to pay Paul
  • English Church robbed to enrich Norman ones
  • Military quotas placed on religious houses
  • In 1086 20% of church’s land held by laity
  • CHURCH LANDS HELD BY KNIGHTS SOON BECAME PERMANENT AND HEREDITARY TENURES thus reducing ecclesiastical control.
conclusion to be drawn
CONCLUSION TO BE DRAWN
  • NORMAN CONQUEST DIMINISHED ECCLESIASTICAL WEALTH AND LANDHOLDING BOTH DIRECTLY AND INDIRECTLY
normans as patrons
NORMANS AS PATRONS
  • Saw Church as guide on path to Heaven
  • Patronage initially went to religious houses in France (£1000 per annum from England’s wealth of £72,000)
  • However, migrants and Normans patronised the Church in England from the beginning
  • Norman generosity soon compensated for losses!
normans as reformers
Normans as Reformers
  • William appointed reformer to head church
  • Lanfranc
  • England brought into line with reform movement
  • Norman leaders eventually began to resist reforming papacy
  • Note William’s demand that bishops and abbots swear fealty for their lands
organisational reform
ORGANISATIONAL REFORM
  • Advanced development of Church Courts
  • Promoted role of Archdeacon
  • Bishoprics moved from rural to urban settings
  • Introduction of Cluniac order
  • Changes to liturgy
  • Abandonment of English as a language of religious writing
  • Promotion of Latin