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Modern Optics II – Polarization of light

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Modern Optics II – Polarization of light

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  1. Modern Optics II – Polarization of light Special topics course in IAMS Lecture speaker: Wang-Yau Cheng 2006/4

  2. Outline • Wave properties of light • Polarization of light • Coherence of light • Special issues on quantum optics

  3. Polarization of light  Polarization vs. dipole oscillation • Ways to change the polarization status • Ways to purify the polarization • Polarization in light scattering

  4. Neutral atoms )))))) Higher harmonic radiation Concepts of induced dipole moment Interact with EM wave

  5. Direction of light excitation E-field and electron oscillation Emitted intensity pattern Scattering by molecules is not sphericallysymmetric. It has a "dipole pattern." The field emitted by an oscillating dipole excited by a vertically polarized light wave: Directions of scat- tered light E-field No light is emitted along direction of oscillation! Directions of scat- tered light E-field

  6. Dipole Emission Pattern from an Antenna Analogous to a molecule emitting light, an antenna emits a dipole pattern at much lower frequency and longer wavelength: The pattern is somewhat distorted by the earth and nearby objects.

  7. Linear polarization Left hand circular polarization Right hand circular polarization For stimulation emission process, all the dipoles will becoherently induced and the radiation will go with certain polarization

  8. )))))) Note that c could be a tensor Interact with EM wave

  9. Optical Activity Unlike birefringence, optical activity maintains a linear polarization throughout. The rotation angle is proportional to the distance.

  10. Right-handed quartz

  11. Polarization of light • Polarization vs. dipole oscillation Ways to change the polarization status • Ways to purify the polarization • Polarization in light scattering

  12. Wave plates When a beam propagates through a birefringent medium, one polarization experiences more phase delay than the other. If both polarizations are present, this has the effect of changing relative phase of the x and y fields, and hence rotating the polarization. Input: Polarization state: } } Output:

  13. Wave plates (continued) (45-degree input polarization) Wave plate output polarization state: “Quarter-wave plate” “Half-wave plate” A quarter-wave plate creates circular polarization, and a half-wave plate rotates linear polarization to its orthogonal state. We can add an additional 2mp without changing the polarization, so the polarization cycles through this evolution as d increases further.

  14. Half-Wave Plate When a beam propagates through a half-wave plate, one polarizationexperiences half of a wavelength more phase delay than the other. If the incident polarization is 45° to the principal axes, then theoutput polarization is rotated by 90°. If the incident polarization is parallel to one of the principal axes of the plate, then no polarization rotation occurs.

  15. Jones Matrices for standard components

  16. x z x-pol y y-pol rotated x-pol y-pol Multiplying Jones Matrices Crossed polarizers: so no light leaks through. Uncrossed polarizers (slightly): SoIout≈ e2Iin,x

  17. Steering mirrors up down

  18. CRYSTAL QUARTZ WAVEPLATES 

  19. p 0 ┴ 0° 30° 60° 90° Incidence angle p 0 || 0° 30° 60° 90° Incidence angle Phase shifts in reflection (glass to air) Interesting phase above the critical angle nt < ni 180° phase shift for angles below Brewster's angle; 0° for larger angles

  20. Total Internal Reflection occurs just as thetransmitted beam grazes the surface. Note that the irradiance of the transmitted beam goes to zero as it grazes the surface. Total internal reflection is 100% efficient.

  21. quarter wave Fresnel rhomb retarder

  22. Winding fiber

  23. The Faraday Effect A magnetic field can induce optical activity. The Faraday effect allows control over the polarization rotation.

  24. Polarization of light • Polarization vs. dipole oscillation • Ways to change the polarization status  Ways to purify the polarization • Polarization in light scattering

  25. p 0 ┴ 0° 30° 60° 90° Incidence angle p 0 || 0° 30° 60° 90° Incidence angle Phase shifts in reflection (air to glass) ni < nt 180° phase shift for all angles 180° phase shift for angles below Brewster's angle; 0° for larger angles

  26. p 0 ┴ 0° 30° 60° 90° Incidence angle p 0 || 0° 30° 60° 90° Incidence angle Phase shifts in reflection (glass to air) Interesting phase above the critical angle nt < ni 180° phase shift for angles below Brewster's angle; 0° for larger angles

  27. Glare is horizontally polarized Puddle reflection viewed through polarizer that transmits only horizontally polarized light Puddle reflection viewed through polarizer that transmits only vertically polarized light Light reflected into our eyes from the puddle reflects at about Brewster's Angle. So parallel (i.e., vertical) polarization sees zero reflection. Polarizer sunglasses transmit only vertically polarized light.

  28. Brewster's Angle When the reflected beam makes a right angle with the transmitted beam, and the polarization is parallel, then no scattering can occur, due to the scattered dipole emission pattern. But our right-angle assumption implies that qi+ qt= 90°. So: Thus, A complex trigonometric calcu-lation reveals that the reflection coefficient for parallel-polarized light goes to zero for Brewster's angle incidence, tan(qi) = nt / ni qi qi ni nt qi +qt = 90° qt

  29. BREWSTER ANGLE Extinction 5*10-5

  30. Piles of plates

  31. BROAD BAND POLARIZING CUBES The extinction of transmitted -p component is at least 1 part in 500

  32. GLAN THOMPSON The Glan Thompson polarizer is made of two calcite prisms cemented together. Two types of Glan Thompsons are available. One is the standard form and the other is the long form. Their length to aperture ratios are 2.5 : 1 and 3.0 : 1 respectively. Glan Thompsons tend to have higher extinction ratio than air spaced polarizers. In the ultra violet spectrum, their transmission is limited by absorption in calcite as well as the cement layer. These polarizers can be used from about 350 to 2300 nm. Extinction 5*10-5

  33. GLAN TAYLOR The Glan Taylor prism polarizer is made of two calcite prisms which are assembled with an air space . It has a length to aperture ratio of approximately 1.0 which makes it a relatively thin polarizer. It is made of UV selected calcite. A 10 mm thick calcite  plate having 50% or more transmission at 250 nm is considered UV selected. The spectral range of this polarizer is from 250-2300 nm. Below 250 nm, transmission cutoff wavelength varies from crystal to crystal. Extinction 1*10-4

  34. CALCITE WOLLASTON Calcite Wollaston prism polarizer is made of two prisms of calcite which are cemented together. The two output beams in a Wollaston polarizer exit with unequal beam deviation ( asymmetry ) which is given in the table below. The beam separation angle is dependent on wavelength. Useable range of this polarizer is from 350 nm to 2300 nm. Extinction 1*10-5

  35. MAGNESIUM FLUORIDE ROCHON extinction ratio of at least  10-3 The magnesium fluoride Rochon polarizer is made of two prisms of single crystal magnesium fluoride which are optically contacted. This polarizer can be used over the spectral range of 140 to 6000 nm and has an extinction ratio of at least  10-3.

  36. CALCITE BEAM DISPLACER A calcite Beam Displacer splits the input unpolarized beam of light into two orthogonally polarized components which exit parallel to each other. The ordinary polarization transmits straight through while the extraordinary transmits through the crystal making approximately 6 degree angle with the straight through beam and emerges parallel to it. The beam displacement varies slightly with wavelength. Non standard beam displacers are available by special order.

  37. Polarizer used in camera The extinction of transmitted -p component is at least 1 part in 200

  38. Polarization of light • Polarization vs. dipole oscillation • Ways to change the polarization status • Ways to purify the polarization  Polarization in light scattering

  39. Scattering of polarized light No light is scattered along the input field direction, i.e. with k parallel to E. Vertically polarized input light Horizontally polarized input light

  40. Scattering of unpolarized light Again, no light is scattered along the input field direction, i.e. with k parallel to Einput.

  41. Scattering in the Earth's atmosphere leads to interesting polarization properties of skylight. Sun's rays

  42. Skylight is polarized if the sun is to your side. Right-angle scattering is polarized This polarizer transmits horizontal polarization (of which there is very little). Multiple scattering yields some light of the other polarization. In clouds, much multiple scattering occurs, and light there is unpolarized. Polarizer transmitting vertical polarization

  43. Polarization Spectroscopy The 45°-polarized “Pump” pulse reorients molecules, which induces some birefringence into the medium, which then acts like a wave plate until the molecules re-orient back to their initial random distribution.