Criteria for classification as reported in an ancient Chinese encyclopedia (Lakoff 1987): - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Criteria for classification as reported in an ancient Chinese encyclopedia (Lakoff 1987): PowerPoint Presentation
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Criteria for classification as reported in an ancient Chinese encyclopedia (Lakoff 1987):

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  1. Classification Criteria for classification as reported in an ancient Chinese encyclopedia (Lakoff 1987): “…it is written that animals are divided into: those that belong to the Emperor embalmed ones those that are trained suckling pigs mermaids fabulous ones stray dogs those that tremble as if they were mad those that have just broken a flower vase

  2. Systematics- studies diversity of life It is the study and classification of organisms with the goal of reconstructing their evolutionary history Taxonomy- the field of science that classifies life into groups

  3. Biological Kingdoms • 2 Kingdoms • Traditional view plants animals

  4. Plantae Fungi Animalia • Protista Monera Biological Kingdoms • 5 Kingdoms • Whittaker, 1969

  5. Five kingdom system: Monera Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Six kingdom system: Eu- bacteria Archae-bacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia Three domain system: Eu- bacteria Archae-bacteria E U K A R Y A Eight kingdom system: Eu- bacteria Archae-bacteria Plantae Fungi Animalia Archezoa Protista Chromista Biological Kingdoms

  6. Classification: Six kingdom system : Eubacteria Archaebacteria E. coli Cyanobacteria Protista Paramecium Diatom Slime mold Plantae Fungi Animalia

  7. Six kingdom system: Monera Eu- bacteria Archae-bacteria Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia

  8. What are some of the ways we can classify animals?

  9. Plantae Fungi Animalia • Protista Monera (Eubacteria & Archaebacteria) Primary Grouping Criterion Cellular complexity Eukaryotic Prokaryotic

  10. Other Grouping Criteria • Single-celled vs. multicellular • Mode of nutrition • absorption • photosynthesis • ingestion • Plantae Fungi Animalia • Protista Monera Note: Criteria can overlap

  11. Other Grouping Criteria • Mode of Reproduction • sexual • asexual • Respiratory System • gas exchange across skin • lungs • gills

  12. Other Grouping Criteria • Skeleton • internal/external • bone/cartilage/chitin… • Circulatory System • none • open/closed

  13. Age of Systematics 1700’s Carl Linnaeus Incurable classifier Flair for creative simplicity

  14. Linnaeus Swedish doctor Professor of Medicine & Natural History 14 books in 3 years Fish book: 3,000 pages

  15. Linnaeus 1753: published book describing World’s plants Start of naming process ID: flowers - number &structure of the parts

  16. Linnaeus Descriptions: “poetic precision” Result: easily applied system 2 word names:“binomial nomenclature”

  17. Binomial Nomenclature 2 word name (genus + species) 1st level classification Elephas maximus Loxodonta africanas

  18. Tiger = Panthera tigris Leopard = Panthera pardus Lion = Panthera leo

  19. Panda Bear = Ailuropoda melanoleuca Black Bear = Ursus americanus Polar Bear = Ursus maritimus

  20. Linnaean Hierarchy Kingdom Phylum (or Division) Class Order Family Genus Species Plantae & Fungi

  21. Linnaean Hierarchy “King Philip came over from Germany stoned.”

  22. Names • Common names • Confusing • Ambiguous • Scientific names • Agreed upon system • Portuguese Man-of-War • Bluebottle • Physalia physalis

  23. Names • Language • Latin or Latinized • Giving names • A highly technical process • Name is author’s choice

  24. Commemorate People Gardenia jasminoides (Dr. Alexander Garden) Camelliajaponica (Joseph Kamel) Strelitzia reginae (Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz) Siegesbeckia orientalis (Dr. Siegesbeck)

  25. Descriptive Cardinalis cardinalis(red) Railus aquaticus(watery) Passer domesticus(house)

  26. Geographic Location Kuhlia sandwicensis (Hawaii) Periplanata americana(American cockroach) Zosterops japonica (Japanese white-eye)

  27. Pronunciation Divide into syllables Choose where to place emphasis

  28. Example of Coral Classification The Mushroom Coral Fungia scutaria Kingdom Animalia Phylum Cnidaria Class Anthozoa Order Scleractinia Family Fungiidae Genus Fungia Species scutaria

  29. Biological Species Organisms that are genetically similar, and have ability to interbreed and produce viable, fertile offspring

  30. Offspring is sterile mule donkey horse

  31. Kingdom Monera • Species number low (~17, 000) • Changing as we learn more • Two Divisions • Eubacteria (Bacteria & Cyanobacteria) • Archaebacteria

  32. Kingdom Monera • Prokaryotic • Single-celled • Diverse energy types: Chemoautotrophic- Purple sulfur bacteria Photoautotrophic- cyanobacteria Heterotrophic- E. coli

  33. Kingdom Monera • Some with cell walls, but cell walls composed of peptidoglycan, not cellulose (as in higher plants). • Asexual reproduction

  34. Kingdom Monera

  35. Eubacteria pneumonia cyanobacteria anthrax

  36. Archaebacteria Purple sulfur bacteria

  37. Kingdom Protista Eukaryotic Generally single-celled; if multicellular, cells not organized into tissues Heterotrophic & autotrophic forms ~ 45,000 species

  38. Kingdom Protista • 3 informal groups • Plant-like (algal) protists • Animal-like protists • Fungus-like protists

  39. Plant-like Protists • Diatoms • Dinoflagellates • Green algae • Brown Algae • Red algae Diatoms Dinoflagellates

  40. Chlorophyta: Green Algae Halimeda opuntia Caulerpa sertularioides Codium edule Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Caulerpa racemosa

  41. Phaeophyta: Brown Algae Padina japonica Turbinaria ornata Hydroclathrus clathratus Sargassum echinocarpum Sargassum polyphyllum

  42. Rhodophyta: Red Algae Hypnea chordacea Ahnfeltia concinna Acanthophora spicifera Galaxaura fastigiata Asparagopsis taxiformis

  43. Animal-like Protists Amoeba Cilliates Flagellates 13,000 species

  44. Fungus-like Protists Mildew Water molds Blights Downey mildew 475 species Slime molds

  45. Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotic Multicellular organisms True tissues. Photoautotrophic nutrition. Most adapted for a terrestrial existence and possessing vascular tissues.

  46. Kingdom Plantae Cells with chloroplasts and cellulose cell walls. Includes mosses, ferns, pine trees, cycads, ginkgos, and flowering plants.

  47. Kingdom Plantae Sea grasses Halophilia hawaiiana- only form of seagrass in Hawaii

  48. Mangroves