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George Beadle and Edward Tatum. “One ought to be able to discover what genes do by making them defective”. What do genes do?. What do genes do?. Their Model Organism:. Neurospora crassa. One Gene–One Enzyme Hypothesis. Neurospora crassa. One Gene–One Enzyme Hypothesis.

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Presentation Transcript
what do genes do
George Beadle and Edward Tatum

“One ought to be able to discover what genes do by making them defective”

What do genes do?

slide3
Their Model Organism:

Neurospora crassa

slide5
One Gene–One Enzyme Hypothesis

Adrian Srb and Norman Horowitz (1944)

slide6
One Gene–One Enzyme 

One Gene–One Protein 

One Gene–One Polypeptide

slide9
3’ G C G T T G G A C 5’

3’ A C G T T G G A C 5’

DNA

5’ U G C A A C C U G 3’

mDNA

5’ C G C A A C C U G 3’

Leu

Asn

Cys

Asn

Leu

Arg

proteins

slide12
Cracking the Genetic Code

= 20 amino

acids?

George Gamow’s Hypothesis

slide13
Cracking the Genetic Code

Analyzed the reading frame by making additions / deletions:

Normal: “The fat cat ate the rat”

1 deletion: “The atcatatet her at”

2 deletions: “The tca tat eth era t”

3 deletions: “fat cat ate the rat”

Francis Crick and Sydney Brennar

slide14
Triplet Code!
  • Redundant
  • Unambiguous
  • Nearly universal
  • Conservative
slide15
Some Quick Decoding Practice…

Who Murdered T.M.R.?

Use decoder on page _____

in textbook!

slide17
Point Mutation Classification
  • In terms of fitness…
  • Beneficial
  • Neutral
  • Deleterious
  • In terms of the code…
  • Silent
  • Missence (replacement)
  • Nonsense
  • Frameshift
slide18
Chromosome Mutation Classification
  • Deletion =
  • Addition / Duplication =
  • Inversion =
  • Translocation =
slide20
Protein Synthesis: 2 Stages

Stage 1:

Stage 2:

from gene to protein outlining protein synthesis
Every group member should contribute equally (indicate where)
  • Every term should have an entry / explanation
  • Include images / links to videos whenever possible / helpful
  • You are not expected to cite sources.
  • Share the completed document with Ms. Hines by Wednesday at midnight at the latest (hopefully you can finish today!)

From Gene to Protein:Outlining Protein Synthesis

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