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Anatomy Review. Part III: the Knee, Ankle, & Foot. Jan McElroy PT, MS, PCS 2009 Do not copy without permission. Knee. Knee: skeletal system. Overview. The knee joint connects: the femur superiorly to the Tibia and fibula inferiorly

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anatomy review

Anatomy Review

Part III: the Knee, Ankle, & Foot

Jan McElroy PT, MS, PCS 2009

Do not copy without permission

overview
Overview

The knee joint connects:

the femur superiorly

to the

Tibia and fibula inferiorly

Knee movements are primarily in the sagittal plane: flexion & extension

Patella

(or knee cap)

Femur

Fibula

Tibia

Anterior view

Right knee

femur landmarks
Femur: landmarks

Medial condyle

Lateral condyle

Intercondylar

fossa

Medial

epicondyle

Lateral

epicondyle

Patellar surface

Left Femur-

Posterior view

Left Femur-

Anterior view

tibia fibula landmarks
Tibia & fibula: landmarks

Medial condyle

Lateral condyle

Tuberosity

Tibial plateau

Head of the

fibula

TIBIA

FIBULA

Right knee

Anterior view

Right knee -

Posterior view

anterior muscles of the knee

Quadriceps(rectus femoris, vastusmedialis, vastuslateralis, vastusintermedialis

Anterior muscles of the Knee

Note:

The rectus femoris is the only muscle of the quadriceps group that crossed both the hip and the knee. Referred to as a

“2 joint muscle”.

Anterior view

right thigh

From:

Novartis Interactive Atlas,

Frank Netter artist

posterior muscles of knee

Hamstrings

    • Biceps femoris
    • Semitendinosus
    • semimembranosus

Note: All of the hamstrings cross both the hip joint and the knee joint. They are all referred to as “2 joint muscles”.

Posterior muscles of knee

Posterior view

right thigh

posterior muscles of knee10

Gastrocnemius

    • Lateral head
    • Medial head

Note: The gastrocnemius crosses both the knee and the ankle making it a “2 joint muscle”.

Posterior muscles of knee

Posterior view

right thigh

overview13
Overview

The distal end of the fibula forms the

lateral malleolus

The distal end of the tibia forms the

medial malleolus

Anterior view

Right foot & ankle

overview14
Overview

The foot is divided into 3 general regions:

Tibia

Fibula

Midfoot

Forefoot

Hindfoot

Lateral view

Right foot & ankle

hindfoot
Hindfoot

The Hindfoot consist of 2 bones:

Calcaneus (heel bone) & Talus

Tibia

Fibula

Hindfoot

Lateral view

Right foot & ankle

midfoot
midfoot

The midfoot consists of 5 small bones:

Navicular

Cuboid

&

3 Cuneiforms

These 5 bones of the midfoot are called Tarsals

Superior view

Left foot

forefoot
forefoot

The forefoot consists of:

5 Metatarsals

(first thru 5th)

&

5 proximal phalanges

&

4 middle phalanges

(the “big toe” only has a proximal and a distal…no middle phalange)

&

5 distal phalanges

joints of the foot
Joints of the foot

Talocrural joint

(ankle joint)

tibia, fibula, talus

Subtalar joint

talus, calcaneus

Midtarsal joint

calcaneocuboid,

talonavicular

Tarsometatarsal

joints

Metatarsophalangeal

joints

anterior lower leg
Anterior lower leg

Tibialis Anterior (commonly called the anterior tib)

Peroneuslongus

Extensor digitorum

longus(digitorum

refers to the digits or

“toes”)

Anterior view

Right leg

From: Novartis Interactive Atlas,

Frank Netter artist

posterior lower leg
Posterior lower leg

Gastrocnemius

(often called the

“gastroc”)

Achilles tendon

(also called the “heel

cord”)

Soleus

Note: though the gastroc and soleus both insert into the achilles tendon, the soleus only crosses the ankle joint…while the gastroc is a 2 joint muscle crossing both the knee and the ankle.

Posterior view

Right leg

From: Novartis Interactive Atlas,

Frank Netter artist

recommended references
Recommended References:

Atlas of Human Anatomy, Frank Netter

McMinn’s Color Atlas of Human Anatomy, Abrahams, Hutchings, & Marks

Kinesiology of the Musculoskeletal System, Donald Neumann

Anatomy Coloring Book, Kapit & Elson