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CELLS – Chapters 6, 7, 11, 12. Cell Structure, Membrane Function, Cell Communication and the Cell Cycle/Mitosis. CELLS. are based on. Cell Theory. states that. 1. all living things are made of cells 2. all cells come from other cells 3. Cells are the most basic unit of life.

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cells chapters 6 7 11 12

CELLS – Chapters 6, 7, 11, 12

Cell Structure, Membrane Function, Cell Communication and the Cell Cycle/Mitosis

slide2

CELLS

are based on

Cell Theory

states that

1. all living things are made of cells

2. all cells come from other cells

3. Cells are the most basic unit of life

Cell structures & function

Cell replication

Ch 6, 7, 11

Ch 12

endomembrane system
Endomembrane System
  • Secreted or membrane-bound proteins only
  • (Free ribosomes synthesis soluble cytosolic proteins)
cells are dynamic
Cells are dynamic!
  • Cell division & growth
  • Metabolism
    • Building proteins and other cell parts (anabolism)
    • Catabolism
    • Repair of damaged cell parts
    • Chemical reactions to stay alive and maintain homeostasis
  • Cell communication
critical components of selectively permeable membrane
Critical components of selectively permeable membrane
  • Phospholipids – barrier
  • Cholesterol – regulates fluidity
  • Transmembrane proteins – render selectivity
    • Receptors
    • Ion channels
    • Aquaporins – allow water to pass into/out of cell
    • Transport proteins
  • Outer leaflet
    • Carbohydrates – cell identification
    • Extracellular matrix (ECM) – interaction with surroundings
types of molecular m ovement across the cell membrane
Types of molecular movement across the cell membrane
  • Passive Transport
    • Diffusion
    • Facilitated Diffusion
    • Osmosis
  • Active Transport
  • Bulk transport: Endocytosis/Exocytosis/Pinocytosis
terms to know
Terms to know:
  • Concentration gradient – a form of stored energy
  • Solute
  • Solvent
  • Isotonic
  • Hypertonic
  • Hypotonic
  • Equilibrium
phrases to know
Phrases to know
  • Passive transport
    • Molecules move down/with their concentration gradient
    • From high concentration to low concentration
  • Active transport
    • Molecules move against their concentration gradient
    • From low concentration to high concentration
    • Requires input of ATP energy from cell
slide12

Passive transport - Diffusion

In the absence of any partitions, molecules will move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration

diffusion across a cell membrane

Molecules of dye

Membrane

Equilibrium

(a) Passive transport of one type of molecule

Equilibrium

(b) Passive transport of two types of molecules

Diffusion across a cell membrane
  • What types of molecules can cross the membrane barrier freely?

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_diffusion_works.html

passive transport facilitated diffusion
Passive transport - Facilitated Diffusion
  • Requires a protein channel
  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_facilitated_diffusion_works.html
passive transport osmosis
Passive transport - Osmosis
  • Movement of H2O through aquaporin proteins
  • Depends on water potential – the direction water molecules will flow is determined by solute concentration on either side of the membrane
  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_osmosis_works.html
the effects of osmosis differ in plant and animal cells
The effects of osmosis differ in plant and animal cells

Animal

cell

Lysing

Normal

Shriveled

Plasma

membrane

Plant

cell

Plasmolysis

Flaccid(wilts)

Turgid(normal)

(a) Isotonic solution

(b) Hypotonic solution

(c) Hypertonic solution

active transport
Active Transport
  • Moves solutes against their concentration gradient via a transport protein
  • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_the_sodium_potassium_pump_works.html
active transport bulk transport via exocytosis endocytosis pinocytosis
Active transport – bulk transport via exocytosis, endocytosis & pinocytosis

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__phagocytosis.html

receptor mediated endocytosis cholesterol uptake
Receptor-mediated endocytosis: cholesterol uptake

http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp05/0502003.html

cell signaling
Cell Signaling
  • Cells communicate with one another for several reasons
    • Growth
    • Development
    • Stimulate immune response
    • Regulate gene expression
    • Relay/transmit signals in nervous system
    • Fight or flight response
    • Homeostasis (example: regulate blood glucose)
three stages of cell signaling
Three stages of cell signaling
  • Reception, Transduction, Response
  • Animations: Ch 11

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__receptors_linked_to_a_channel_protein.html

mitosis duplicating cells
Mitosis: duplicating cells
  • Occurs in somatic cells (body cells) throughout life
    • Wound healing
    • Growth
    • Repair/maintenance (skin, intestine, hair follicles, replacement of uterine lining after menstruation)
results of normal mitosis
Results of (normal) Mitosis
  • 2 genetically identical cells (“daughter cells”)

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__mitosis_and_cytokinesis.html

normal cell division has 2 key characteristics
Normal cell division has 2 key characteristics:
  • Density-dependent inhibition
  • Anchorage dependency
  • Cells that are not adhered to a surface will not proliferate
  • Cells use cell signaling to detect growth factors and density signals