CELLS - APK • What are cells? • Where are they found? • Where do they come from? • What are they made of?
CELLS • Listen • Write down anything that you think might be important later! • When we’re done, see what you can find about cells in your COACH or in your text!
Cell Theory • All living things are made of cells. • All cells come from other cells • Cells are the basic unit of life. • Some organisms are uni-cellular (one celled), some organisms are multi-cellular (many cells).
Some important info - • Microscopes give us the ability to look at cells more closely. • When we look at the cells we can tell whether they are plant or animal cells based on the organelles that are present.
Animal and Plant Cell Illustrations • Animal cell • Draw, label, and then color • Add these organelles and tell what they do: Mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleus, vacuoles, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, centrioles, cell membrane. • Plant cell • Draw, label, and then color • Add these organelles and tell what they do: Mitochondria, lysosomes, nucleus, vacuoles, ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi bodies, centrioles, cell membrane, chloroplast, cell wall
ORGANELLES • Organelles are the tiny structures inside the cell that are responsible for many different jobs. • Organelles all have different responsibilities just like the organs in our bodies all have different responsibilities.
CELL WALL • The cell wall is a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. • The cell wall is made of cellulose. It is tough but flexible. • The cell wall allows some materials to travel through like oxygen and water.
CELL MEMBRANE • The cell membrane is just inside the cell wall. • The tiny openings in the cell membrane control what travels into and out of the cell. • The cell membrane is like a screen on a window. It allows some things to travel back and forth, but stops other things from traveling through.
CYTOPLASM • The gelatin-like material that fills a cell • This material helps hold organelles in place • This material also allows materials such as oxygen, carbon dioxide and sugars to move throughout the cell
NUCLEUS • The nucleus is the BRAIN of the cell. • It is the control center that directs all of the cell’s activities. • The nucleus has a membrane also. The membrane protects the nucleus and allows some things to travel through it.
NUCLEUS • There are lots of strands in the nucleus. • These strands are called CHROMATIN. They contain the genetic material that directs the functions of the cell. • The nucleolus is a small object inside the nucleus that makes ribosomes. These ribosomes contain protein.
MITOCHONDRIA • Mitochondria are known as the “powerhouses” of the cell. The produce most of the energy that the cell needs. • Muscle cells have large numbers of mitochondria.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION • This process happens in the mitochondria • It turns food into energy • Oxygen is used to help transform glucose (food) into energy • Carbon dioxide and water are released during this process • This process occurs in both plant and animal cells
CHLOROPLASTS • Only the cells of plants and a few other organisms have these organelles. • Chloroplasts capture energy from the sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell. • Chloroplasts give plant cells their green pigment. • Chloroplasts are the most important organelle in photosynthesis.
PHOTOSYNTHESIS • This process happens in the chloroplast • Carbon dioxide, water and sunlight are used • Glucose (food) is created and oxygen is released • This process occurs in plant cells and in the cells of other producers
VACUOLES • A vacuole is the storage area of the cell. • Most plant cells have only one very big vacuole. • Vacuoles store food, waste products, and other materials for the cell. • When the vacuole is full of water the plants are plumped up and sturdy, but when the vacuoles are running low on water it causes the plant to wilt.
Make sure you know the major differences between a plant and an animal cell!