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The Role of the Endomembrane System in the Evolution of Eukaryotic Cell Function. Chapters 6 and 7. The Cell Theory. All living organisms are composed of cells. The cell is the basic unit of life. Cells arise from pre-existing cells…except the first cell???.

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the role of the endomembrane system in the evolution of eukaryotic cell function

The Role of the Endomembrane System in the Evolution of Eukaryotic Cell Function

Chapters 6 and 7

the cell theory
The Cell Theory
  • All living organisms are composed of cells.
  • The cell is the basic unit of life.
  • Cells arise from pre-existing cells…except the first cell???
key events in the evolution of cells
Key Events in the Evolution of Cells
  • Be able to describe the event and place it in sequence (approx. dates)
  • Identify key terms
  • Discuss supporting evidence
  • Visuals?

* Considering organizing events in a table

evolution of eukaryotic cells
Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells
  • Endosymbiosis –Describe the steps of the theory
a theory needs evidence
A theory needs evidence…
  • mtDNA and cpDNA
  • Ribosomes and

protein synthesis

  • Size/Structure
  • Double membranes
  • Binary Fission
more evidence for eukaryotic cells
More evidence for Eukaryotic Cells

ArcheanMolecular Fossils and the Early Rise of Eukaryotes

  • Abstract: Molecular fossils of biological lipids are preserved in 2700-million-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. The presence of abundant 2αmethylhopanes, which are characteristic of cyanobacteria, indicates that oxygenic photosynthesis evolved well before the atmosphere became oxidizing. The presence of steranes, particularly cholestane and its 28- to 30-carbon analogs, provides persuasive evidence for the existence of eukaryotes 500 million to 1 billion years before the extant fossil record indicates that the lineage arose.
evolution of eukaryotic cells1
Evolution of Eukaryotic Cells
  • Definition of Eukaryotic –contains a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
  • Membrane structures meets function!
phospholipid bilayer
Phospholipid Bilayer

Why???

  • Hydrophilic
  • Hydrophobic

Term: Amphipathic

diversity of lipid composition leads to diversity of functions
Diversity of lipid composition leads to diversity of functions
  • What keeps membranes flexible?
  • Unsaturated vs. Saturated fats
  • Role of cholesterol
    • Depends on temperature
      • Warm Temperatures
      • Low Temperatures
how are proteins arranged in the membrane
How are proteins arranged in the membrane?
  • Proteins are embedded in membranes rather than sandwiched.
  • Evidence: freeze fracture technique
structure of integral proteins allows them to embed in the membrane using hydrophobic forces
Structure of integral proteins allows them to embed in the membrane using hydrophobic forces
  • Amphipathic
  • Aquaporin is an example of an amphipathic protein that spans the cell membrane and has a hollow core to allow water to pass through
aquaporin
Aquaporin
  • Where might the hydrophobic parts be?
  • Hydrophilic?
  • How might influx of water be controlled?
fluid mosaic model
Fluid Mosaic Model
  • Proteins (and lipids) can shift laterally throughout the cell membrane
  • How is the above experiment evidence of this concept?
endomembrane system
Endomembrane System

Be able to describe the role of each organelle in the pathway of protein production

exocytosis
Exocytosis
  • Production and Secretion of an “exogeneous” protein
    • Identify and sequence the organelles involved in protein synthesis and secretion
biovisions video
Biovisionsvideo
  • Inner Life of a Cell – animation that portray the dynamic activity within a cell.