From Pompey & Caesar to Marc Antony and Octavian - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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From Pompey & Caesar to Marc Antony and Octavian

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From Pompey & Caesar to Marc Antony and Octavian
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From Pompey & Caesar to Marc Antony and Octavian

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  1. From Pompey & Caesar toMarc Antony and Octavian

  2. Gaius Marius Lucius Sulla

  3. 2nd Civil War49-46 BCE–Caesar(the Populares) vs Pompey(the Optimates)

  4. Gnaeus Pompeii106-48 BC • Gained recognition in Spain, 77 BC then during the slave revolt of Spartacus (73-71 BC). • He joined with Marcus Crassus, the richest man in Rome, -they marched to the gates of Rome and demanded consulships (Pompey was 36!) • As Consuls, they canceled Sulla’s “reforms” and retired.

  5. Pompey returns... • In 67 BCE, the Senate asked Pompey to deal with Pirates in the Med Sea and renewed fighting with King Mithradates • Returning in 62 BCE, Pompey asked for land grants to his soldiers, which was rejected by the Senate. • Such shortsightedness drove Pompey into an alliance with Julius Caesar.

  6. Julius Caesar, 100-44BCE • Dad died when 15 • At 17- married Cornelius Cinna’s daughter • At 18- Sulla proscribed his death! • 20- Roman soldier in Bythnia • 21- lawyer in Rome • 22- Set out to Rhodes • Career: held various administrative posts • At 38 – appointed governor of Spain

  7. Governor of Spain, returned to Rome in 60 BC- intending to run for consul-Senate said no! • Teamed up with Pompey and Crassus to form the 1st Triumverate and became a consul in 60 BCE • After his term as consul, he took governorship over two northern territories (Gaul) and initiated the Gallic Wars • Legacy: brought western Europe into the mainstream of civilization

  8. Caesar’s Gallic Wars, 58 – 52 BCE Caesar’s victories over the Gauls (Celts) were incredible… sending back to Rome untold wealth from plunder and almost one million slaves with another million counted as dead.(#’s are debatable!)

  9. Vercingetorix surrenders to Caesar, 52 BC (after the Battle of Alesia)

  10. Fearing his rising power, the Senate recalled Caesar… without his army! • When Caesar crossed the Rubicon river in 49 BCE, he started a civil war. • Pompey was convinced by Senate leaders to come out of retirement and defend the Senate

  11. 2nd Civil War49-46 BCE–Caesar(the Populares) vs Pompey(the Optimates)

  12. Caesar defeated Pompey- Battle of Pharsalus (48 BCE) then followed him to Egypt where Pompey hoped for allies.

  13. After Pharsalus, Pompey escaped to Egypt with Caesar chasing him only to be assassinated.

  14. Caesar restored Cleopatra to power, gave her a son (Caesarion), then returned with her to Rome in 46 BCE Caesar & Cleopatra

  15. Caesar: “dictator for life” • Pardoned Senators but raised members to 900 • Gave public land to his soldiers and the poor • Granted citizenship to provinces • Raised pay of soldiers • Reorganized town governments and the courts • Lowered taxes on provinces • Started building projects

  16. Caesar’s assassination and the 2nd Triumverate • March 15, 44 BC • Marc Antony joined with Octavian and Lepidus to defeat Brutus, Cassius & the other conspirators • Both Antony and Octavian wanted to be number 1

  17. Augustus, 27 BCE